Solid-state NMR structure of Teixobactin-Lipid II.

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Conformers Calculated: 25 
  • Conformers Submitted: 25 
  • Selection Criteria: all calculated structures submitted 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report

This is version 2.0 of the entry. See complete history


Teixobactin kills bacteria by a two-pronged attack on the cell envelope.

Shukla, R.Lavore, F.Maity, S.Derks, M.G.N.Jones, C.R.Vermeulen, B.J.A.Melcrova, A.Morris, M.A.Becker, L.M.Wang, X.Kumar, R.Medeiros-Silva, J.van Beekveld, R.A.M.Bonvin, A.M.J.J.Lorent, J.H.Lelli, M.Nowick, J.S.MacGillavry, H.D.Peoples, A.J.Spoering, A.L.Ling, L.L.Hughes, D.E.Roos, W.H.Breukink, E.Lewis, K.Weingarth, M.

(2022) Nature 608: 390-396

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05019-y
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Antibiotics that use novel mechanisms are needed to combat antimicrobial resistance 1-3 . Teixobactin 4 represents a new class of antibiotics with a unique chemical scaffold and lack of detectable resistance. Teixobactin targets lipid II, a precursor of peptidoglycan 5 . Here we unravel the mechanism of teixobactin at the atomic level using a combination of solid-state NMR, microscopy, in vivo assays and molecular dynamics simulations. The unique enduracididine C-terminal headgroup of teixobactin specifically binds to the pyrophosphate-sugar moiety of lipid II, whereas the N terminus coordinates the pyrophosphate of another lipid II molecule. This configuration favours the formation of a β-sheet of teixobactins bound to the target, creating a supramolecular fibrillar structure. Specific binding to the conserved pyrophosphate-sugar moiety accounts for the lack of resistance to teixobactin 4 . The supramolecular structure compromises membrane integrity. Atomic force microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations show that the supramolecular structure displaces phospholipids, thinning the membrane. The long hydrophobic tails of lipid II concentrated within the supramolecular structure apparently contribute to membrane disruption. Teixobactin hijacks lipid II to help destroy the membrane. Known membrane-acting antibiotics also damage human cells, producing undesirable side effects. Teixobactin damages only membranes that contain lipid II, which is absent in eukaryotes, elegantly resolving the toxicity problem. The two-pronged action against cell wall synthesis and cytoplasmic membrane produces a highly effective compound targeting the bacterial cell envelope. Structural knowledge of the mechanism of teixobactin will enable the rational design of improved drug candidates.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    NMR Spectroscopy, Bijvoet Centre for Biomolecular Research, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.


Find similar proteins by:  Sequence   |   3D Structure  

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
A, B, C, D
11Eleftheria terraeMutation(s): 0 
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence

Find similar proteins by:  Sequence   |   3D Structure  

Entity ID: 2
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Lipid II
E, F, G, H
5Staphylococcus aureusMutation(s): 0 
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence


Entity ID: 3
MoleculeChains Length2D Diagram Glycosylation3D Interactions
2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranose-(1-4)-N-acetyl-alpha-muramic acid
I, J, K, L
Glycosylation Resources
GlyTouCan:  G88499BX
GlyCosmos:  G88499BX
Small Molecules
Ligands 2 Unique
IDChains Name / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
Query on P1W

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
BA [auth C]
EA [auth D]
FA [auth D]
O [auth A]
P [auth A]
BA [auth C],
EA [auth D],
FA [auth D],
O [auth A],
P [auth A],
Q [auth A],
R [auth B],
U [auth B],
V [auth B],
W [auth C],
X [auth C],
Y [auth C]
C5 H10 O
Query on 2PO

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
AA [auth C]
CA [auth D]
DA [auth D]
M [auth A]
N [auth A]
AA [auth C],
CA [auth D],
DA [auth D],
M [auth A],
N [auth A],
S [auth B],
T [auth B],
Z [auth C]
H O3 P
Modified Residues  1 Unique
IDChains TypeFormula2D DiagramParent
Query on EI4
A, B, C, D
Biologically Interesting Molecules (External Reference) 3 Unique
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Conformers Calculated: 25 
  • Conformers Submitted: 25 
  • Selection Criteria: all calculated structures submitted 

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report

Entry History & Funding Information

Deposition Data

Funding OrganizationLocationGrant Number
Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)Netherlands--

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2022-08-03
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2022-09-21
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.2: 2023-05-17
    Changes: Structure summary
  • Version 1.3: 2023-06-14
    Changes: Other
  • Version 2.0: 2023-11-15
    Changes: Advisory, Atomic model, Data collection, Derived calculations