Crystal structure of glucokinase from Balamuthia mandrillaris in complex with glucose

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.65 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.204 
  • R-Value Work: 0.174 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.177 

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This is version 1.3 of the entry. See complete history


Characterization of Glucokinases from Pathogenic Free-Living Amoebae.

Milanes, J.E.Suryadi, J.Monaghan, N.P.Harding, E.M.Morris, C.S.Rozema, S.D.Khalifa, M.M.Golden, J.E.Phan, I.Q.Zigweid, R.Abendroth, J.Rice, C.A.McCord, H.T.Wilson, S.Fenwick, M.K.Morris, J.C.

(2022) Antimicrob Agents Chemother : e0237321-e0237321

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/aac.02373-21
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Infection with pathogenic free-living amoebae, including Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp., and Balamuthia mandrillaris, can lead to life-threatening illnesses, primarily because of catastrophic central nervous system involvement. Efficacious treatment options for these infections are lacking, and the mortality rate due to infection is high. Previously, we evaluated the N. fowleri glucokinase ( Nf Glck) as a potential target for therapeutic intervention, as glucose metabolism is critical for in vitro viability. Here, we extended these studies to the glucokinases from two other pathogenic free-living amoebae, including Acanthamoeba castellanii ( Ac Glck) and B. mandrillaris ( Bm Glck). While these enzymes are similar (49.3% identical at the amino acid level), they have distinct kinetic properties that distinguish them from each other. For ATP, Ac Glck and Bm Glck have apparent K m values of 472.5 and 41.0 μM, while Homo sapiens Glck ( Hs Glck) has a value of 310 μM. Both parasite enzymes also have a higher apparent affinity for glucose than the human counterpart, with apparent K m values of 45.9 μM ( Ac Glck) and 124 μM ( Bm Glck) compared to ~8 mM for Hs Glck. Additionally, Ac Glck and Bm Glck differ from each other and other Glcks in their sensitivity to small molecule inhibitors, suggesting that inhibitors with pan-amoebic activity could be challenging to generate.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Eukaryotic Pathogens Innovation Center, Department of Genetics and Biochemistry, Clemson Universitygrid.26090.3d, Clemson, South Carolina, USA.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
BamaA.19900.a391Balamuthia mandrillarisMutation(s): 0 
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 157.3α = 90
b = 157.3β = 90
c = 157.3γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
XDSdata reduction
XSCALEdata scaling
PDB_EXTRACTdata extraction
Cootmodel building

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2020-03-25
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2020-07-29
    Type: Remediation
    Reason: Carbohydrate remediation
    Changes: Data collection, Derived calculations, Structure summary
  • Version 1.2: 2022-06-15
    Changes: Database references, Structure summary
  • Version 1.3: 2023-10-11
    Changes: Data collection, Refinement description