Structure of tetrameric rat phenylalanine hydroxylase, residues 1-453

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 3.60 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.296 
  • R-Value Work: 0.268 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.270 

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Domain Movements upon Activation of Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Characterized by Crystallography and Chromatography-Coupled Small-Angle X-ray Scattering.

Meisburger, S.P.Taylor, A.B.Khan, C.A.Zhang, S.Fitzpatrick, P.F.Ando, N.

(2016) J Am Chem Soc 138: 6506-6516

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.6b01563
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    5EGQ, 5FGJ

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Mammalian phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH) is an allosteric enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the catabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine. Following allosteric activation by high phenylalanine levels, the enzyme catalyzes the pterin-dependent conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine. Inability to control elevated phenylalanine levels in the blood leads to increased risk of mental disabilities commonly associated with the inherited metabolic disorder, phenylketonuria. Although extensively studied, structural changes associated with allosteric activation in mammalian PheH have been elusive. Here, we examine the complex allosteric mechanisms of rat PheH using X-ray crystallography, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We describe crystal structures of the preactivated state of the PheH tetramer depicting the regulatory domains docked against the catalytic domains and preventing substrate binding. Using SAXS, we further describe the domain movements involved in allosteric activation of PheH in solution and present the first demonstration of chromatography-coupled SAXS with Evolving Factor Analysis (EFA), a powerful method for separating scattering components in a model-independent way. Together, these results support a model for allostery in PheH in which phenylalanine stabilizes the dimerization of the regulatory domains and exposes the active site for substrate binding and other structural changes needed for activity.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Chemistry, Princeton University , Princeton, New Jersey 08544, United States.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
A, B, C, D
453Rattus norvegicusMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: Pah
Find proteins for P04176 (Rattus norvegicus)
Explore P04176 
Go to UniProtKB:  P04176
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP04176
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 3.60 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.296 
  • R-Value Work: 0.268 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.270 
  • Space Group: P 21 21 21
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 96.768α = 90
b = 102.686β = 90
c = 202.966γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
XDSdata reduction
XDSdata scaling

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2016-05-18
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2016-06-08
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.2: 2023-09-27
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Derived calculations, Refinement description