5VK0

Crystal structure of human MDM2 in complex with a 12-mer lysine-cysteine side chain dithiocarbamate stapled peptide inhibitor PMI


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.8 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.247 
  • R-Value Work: 0.198 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.2 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

Dithiocarbamate-inspired side chain stapling chemistry for peptide drug design.

Li, X.Tolbert, W.D.Hu, H.G.Gohain, N.Zou, Y.Niu, F.He, W.X.Yuan, W.Su, J.C.Pazgier, M.Lu, W.

(2019) Chem Sci 10: 1522-1530

  • DOI: 10.1039/c8sc03275k
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Two major pharmacological hurdles severely limit the widespread use of small peptides as therapeutics: poor proteolytic stability and membrane permeability. Importantly, low aqueous solubility also impedes the development of peptides for clinical use ...

    Two major pharmacological hurdles severely limit the widespread use of small peptides as therapeutics: poor proteolytic stability and membrane permeability. Importantly, low aqueous solubility also impedes the development of peptides for clinical use. Various elaborate side chain stapling chemistries have been developed for α-helical peptides to circumvent this problem, with considerable success in spite of inevitable limitations. Here we report a novel peptide stapling strategy based on the dithiocarbamate chemistry linking the side chains of residues Lys( i ) and Cys( i + 4) of unprotected peptides and apply it to a series of dodecameric peptide antagonists of the p53-inhibitory oncogenic proteins MDM2 and MDMX. Crystallographic studies of peptide-MDM2/MDMX complexes structurally validated the chemoselectivity of the dithiocarbamate staple bridging Lys and Cys at ( i , i + 4) positions. One dithiocarbamate-stapled PMI derivative, DTC PMI, showed a 50-fold stronger binding to MDM2 and MDMX than its linear counterpart. Importantly, in contrast to PMI and its linear derivatives, the DTC PMI peptide actively traversed the cell membrane and killed HCT116 tumor cells in vitro by activating the tumor suppressor protein p53. Compared with other known stapling techniques, our solution-based DTC stapling chemistry is simple, cost-effective, regio-specific and environmentally friendly, promising an important new tool for the development of peptide therapeutics with improved pharmacological properties including aqueous solubility, proteolytic stability and membrane permeability.


    Organizational Affiliation

    College of Life Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, People's Republic of China. Electronic address: zhouwh@nankai.edu.cn.,Laboratory of Biosignaling & Therapeutics, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA; Department of Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address: lefko001@receptor-biol.duke.edu.,Department of Chemistry and Technologies of Drugs, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305.,International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Trojdena 4, 02-109 Warsaw, Poland; Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics PAS, Pawinskiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address: mbochtler@iimcb.gov.pl.,the Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada.,Graduate School of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba, Japan.,Pharmaceutical Research Division, Shionogi & Co., Ltd., 1-1, Futaba-cho 3-chome, Toyonaka, Osaka 561-0825, Japan. Electronic address: yoshikazu.sasaki@shionogi.co.jp.,VIB-VUB Center for Structural Biology, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium jlauer@mpi-cbg.de wim.versees@vub.be.,Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA, United Kingdom. Electronic address: stuart.conway@chem.ox.ac.uk.,Center for Blood Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.,Department of Clinical Pathology, University of Melbourne, Australia.,Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor Malaysia.,Department of Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, 38105-3678, USA. taosheng.chen@stjude.org.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114; vamsi@hms.harvard.edu grabarek@molbio.mgh.harvard.edu.,Institute of Pathological Physiology, First Faculty of Medicine , Charles University , 128 53 Prague , Czech Republic.,Neuroscience, IMED Biotech Unit , AstraZeneca , Cambridge CB21 6GH , U.K.,Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TA, U.K.,Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.,From the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 0QH, United Kingdom.,Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Pharmacology Graduate Group, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.,Asubio Pharma Co., Ltd., 6-4-3 Minatojima-Minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047, Japan.,Henry Wellcome Building for Molecular Physiology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7BN, UK.,Department of Bacterial Genetics, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, ul. Miecznikowa 1, 02-096, Warszawa, Poland.,Protein Stability and Inherited Disease Laboratory, Center for Cooperative Research in Biosciences CIC bioGUNE, 48170 Derio, Spain; alvaro.villarroel@csic.es omillet@cicbiogune.es.,The Gut Health and Food Safety Programme, Quadram Bioscience Institute, NR4 7UA Norwich, United Kingdom.,Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan. ts@chembio.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp.,Epigenetic Regulation of Chromatin Function Group, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QU, U.K.,Department Molecular Oncology and Immunology, B6 Plesmanlaan 121, Amsterdam, 1066CX, The Netherlands.,CEA, Institut des Sciences du Vivant Frédéric Joliot, Service d'Ingénierie Moléculaire des Protéines (SIMOPRO) , Université Paris-Saclay , Gif-sur-Yvette 91190 , France.,School of Basic Medical Sciences, Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.,Institute for Molecular Bioscience , The University of Queensland , Brisbane , Queensland 4072 , Australia.,Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8602, Japan.,From the State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, jiaoshi@sibcb.ac.cn.,Polgenix Inc., Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.,Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics Graduate Group, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Pharmacology Graduate Group, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address: jshorter@pennmedicine.upenn.edu.,The Gut Health and Food Safety Programme, Quadram Bioscience Institute, NR4 7UA Norwich, United Kingdom; c.dong@uea.ac.uk nathalie.juge@quadram.ac.uk.,Department of Pathology & Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110.,Brigham and Women's Hospital, Division of Hematology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.,Departments of Biophysics, UT Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, Texas, 75390.,Lehrstuhl für Mikrobielle Ökologie, Technische Universität München, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, 85354, Freising, Germany.,State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Andrology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China; huangy@sibcb.ac.cn.,Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (Japan), Science and Technology Agency, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-0075, Japan.,College of Life Sciences, College of Pharmacy, State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, People's Republic of China.,Department of Cellular Logistics, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address: goerlich@mpibpc.mpg.de.,Department of Informatics, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstrasse 3, 85748 Garching, Germany.,State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Andrology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China.,From the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 0QH, United Kingdom smvf@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk.,International Cooperative Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Modernization and Innovative Drug Development of Chinese Ministry of Education (MOE), Guangzhou City Key Laboratory of Precision Chemical Drug Development, School of Pharmacy , Jinan University , 601 Huangpu Avenue West , Guangzhou 510632 , China.,ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 23 Innovation Walk, Monash University, Victoria, 3800, Australia.,Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Andrew_Kruse@hms.harvard.edu.,the Infection and Immunity Research Laboratory, Metabolic Regulation Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 34141, and mhk8n@kribb.re.kr.,Department of Clinical Chemistry, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.,Institute for Cancer Genetics, Departments of Pediatrics and Genetics and Development and Irving Cancer Research Center, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address: zz2401@cumc.columbia.edu.,Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.,Structural MitoLab, Structural Biology Unit, Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona, CSIC, Barcelona Science Park, Helix Building, c/Baldiri Reixac, 15-21, E-08028, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.,Department of Biophysics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6001 Forest Park Road, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA. Xuelian.Luo@utsouthwestern.edu.,Genetics and Genome Biology Program, SickKids Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Gene Technology, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.,State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center for Genetics and Development, Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China.,Pharmaceutical Research Division, Shionogi & Co., Ltd., 1-1, Futaba-cho 3-chome, Toyonaka, Osaka 561-0825, Japan.,CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Oxford OX3 7DQ, United Kingdom.,Structure Biology, Shanghai Medicilon Inc., Shanghai, 201299, China.,Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON M5G 1X5, Canada; Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.,Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.,Centre for Structural Systems Biology (CSSB), DESY Campus, Hamburg, Germany and Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Juelich, Germany.,School of Chemistry and Biochemistry , The University of Western Australia (M313) , 35 Stirling Highway , Crawley , WA 6009 , Australia.,Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.,Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.,Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging & Institute for Nanostructure and Solid State Physics, University of Hamburg, 20146 Hamburg, Germany.,Novozymes A/S, Krogshoejvej 36, 2880 Bagsvaerd, Denmark.,the Department of Hematology and Institute of Clinical Science, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.,Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanhai Road 7, Qingdao 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address: qma@qdio.ac.cn.,NTU Institute of Structural Biology, Nanyang Technological University, 59 Nanyang Drive, 636921, Singapore.,Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110.,Department of Food Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 26, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.,Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, 4058 Basel, Switzerland.,Platform Technologies and Science, GlaxoSmithKline, and.,Japan Science and Technology Agency/Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto, Japan.,TB Discovery Research, Infectious Disease Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA.,Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Electronic address: laub@mit.edu.,Division of Organic Chemistry, CSIR- National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India.,South East University-Monash Joint Institute, Institute of Life Sciences, Southeast University, 210096, Nanjing, China. James.Whisstock@monash.edu.,Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.,Institut Pasteur, Laboratoire des Processus Infectieux à Trypanosomatidés, Département Infection et Epidémiologie, Paris, France.,Biocenter Oulu and Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.,Department of Anesthesiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, United States.,European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hamburg Unit, Hamburg 22607, Germany. Electronic address: parret@embl-hamburg.de.,College of Life Sciences, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300071, People's Republic of China.,Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138.,Asubio Pharma Co., Ltd., 6-4-3 Minatojima-Minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047, Japan. Electronic address: muto.tsuyoshi.zu@daiichisankyo.co.jp.,Institute of Crystallography, University of Aachen (RWTH), Aachen, Germany.,Department of Oral Biological and Medical Science, Faculty of Dentistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.,Department of Gynecology, University of Zurich, Wagistrasse 14, 8952 Schlieren, Switzerland.,Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina and Departament de Bioquímica i de Biologia Molecular , Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona , Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona , Spain.,Institute of Life Science and Natural Resources, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. structures@korea.ac.kr.,From the Picobiology Institute and tsuki@protein.osaka-u.ac.jp.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, United States.,Department of Molecular Biology, University of Geneva, 30 Quai E. Ansermet, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland.,Faculty of Mathematics and Physics , Charles University in Prague , Ke Karlovu 3 , 121 16 Prague 2 , Czech Republic.,Instituto Biofisika (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Universidad del País Vasco), University of Basque Country, 48940 Leioa, Spain.,BioTechMed-Graz, Mozartgasse 12/II, 8010, Graz, Austria. m.oberer@uni-graz.at.,Department of Cellular Logistics, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen, Germany.,Division of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering, The Bioactives Lab, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. dutzler@bioc.uzh.ch.,Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Humboldtstraße 50/3, 8010, Graz, Austria.,Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. katritch@usc.edu.,Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.,School of Molecular Sciences and Biodesign Center for Applied Structural Discovery, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India.,Bridge Institute, USC Michelson Center for Convergent Biosciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. cherezov@usc.edu.,Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON M5G 1X5, Canada; Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address: gingras@lunenfeld.ca.,York Structural Biology Laboratory , Department of Chemistry , The University of York , YO10 5DD , UK.,Department of Oral Immunology and Infectious Diseases, University of Louisville School of Dentistry, 501 South Preston Street, Louisville, KY, 40202, USA.,School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's Close, Bristol, BS8 1TS, UK. Guto.Rhys@bristol.ac.uk.,NanoTemper Technologies, Bangalore, India.,University of Puerto Rico at Humacao, Humacao, PR, USA.,1Key Laboratory for Feed Biotechnology of the Ministry of Agriculture, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081 China.,Cayman Chemical Company , 1180 East Ellsworth , Ann Arbor , Michigan 48108 , United States.,From the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 0QH, United Kingdom passmore@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk.,Division of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering, The Bioactives Lab, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia salim.babili@kaust.edu.sa stefan.arold@kaust.edu.sa.,Department of Pathology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, United States.,Institute for Cancer Genetics, Departments of Pediatrics and Genetics and Development and Irving Cancer Research Center, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.,Research Service, Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.,Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, Australia.,Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology , University of Michigan Medical School , Ann Arbor , Michigan 48109 , United States.,Cancer Immunology Discovery, Pfizer Inc., 230 E. Grand Ave, South San Francisco, CA, 94080, USA. shermanmichael.chin@pfizer.com.,Department of Biochemistry, National Centre of Competence in Research Chemical Biology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.,University of Florence, NEUROFARBA Department, Sezione di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Via Ugo Schiff 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, Italy. claudiu.supuran@unifi.it.,Sprint Bioscience , 141 57 Huddinge , Sweden.,Laboratory of Biophysics, Department of Cell Biology, University of Brasilia, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Asa Norte, Brasília, DF, 70910-900, Brazil. Electronic address: nina@unb.br.,Division of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Computational Bioscience Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia salim.babili@kaust.edu.sa stefan.arold@kaust.edu.sa.,State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, College of Pharmacy and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Drug Research, Nankai University, 300353 Tianjin, China.,Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medical Oncology, Boston, MA 02215, USA.,Antibody and Vaccine Group, Cancer Sciences Unit, University of Southampton Faculty of Medicine, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK; Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK.,Gene Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.,Department of Chemistry , University of Aberdeen , Meston Walk , Aberdeen AB24 3UE , Scotland, U.K.,Cleveland Center for Membrane and Structural Biology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.,Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.,National Institute of Mental Health Psychoactive Drug Screening Program, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. bryan_roth@med.unc.edu.,European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hamburg Unit, Hamburg 22607, Germany.,Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.,Department of Structure and Function on Neural Network, Korea Brain Research Institute, Deagu, Republic of Korea.,Department of Botany and Plant Biology, University of Geneva, 30 Quai E. Ansermet, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland.,From the Picobiology Institute and yoshi@sci.u-hyogo.ac.jp.,Protein Core Facility, University of Southampton Faculty of Medicine, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK.,School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's Close, Bristol, BS8 1TS, UK. D.N.Woolfson@bristol.ac.uk.,Department of Biophysics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Electronic address: uddipan.das@aiims.ac.in.,Scripps Research, United States.,Department of Hematology and Oncology, Center for Cancer Immune Therapy, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark.,Department of Biochemistry & Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.,Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 23 Innovation Walk, Monash University, Victoria, 3800, Australia. Michelle.Dunstone@monash.edu.,Department of Biomolecular Mechanisms, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany jochen.reinstein@mpimf-heidelberg.mpg.de.,Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck (CMBI), University of Innsbruck, Innrain 80-82, Innsbruck A-6020, Austria.,Department of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea; Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: masayo.morishita.dl@gmail.com.,Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China. chenzhongzhou@cau.edu.cn.,BrisSynBio, University of Bristol, Life Sciences Building, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, UK. D.N.Woolfson@bristol.ac.uk.,Hauptman Woodward Medical Research Institute, Suny Buffalo, NY, USA.,Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.,Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto, Japan.,Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Emil-Erlenmeyer-Forum 5, 85354, Freising, Germany.,Proteolysis Lab, Structural Biology Unit, "María de Maeztu" Unit of Excellence, Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona (CSIC), Barcelona Science Park, Helix Building, c/Baldiri Reixac, 15-21, 08028, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.,The Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Department of Biological Sciences, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet St., London, WC1E 7HX, UK.,Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. cherezov@usc.edu.,National Facility for Protein Science in Shanghai, Zhangjiang Laboratory, Shanghai 201210, China.,Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 23 Innovation Walk, Monash University, Victoria, 3800, Australia. James.Whisstock@monash.edu.,Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, UK.,Department of Immunobiology, King's College London, United Kingdom.,Centre for Computational Chemistry, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's Close, Bristol, BS8 1TS, UK.,Division of Biological Chemistry and Drug Discovery, School of Life Sciences , University of Dundee , James Black Centre, Dow Street , Dundee DD1 5EH , Scotland, U.K.,Proteolysis Laboratory, Structural Biology Unit, Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona, CSIC, Barcelona Science Park, Helix Building, c/Baldiri Reixac, 15-21, E-08028, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.,Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.,Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan.,Molecular and Clinical Sciences Research Institute, St. George's, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, SW17 0RE, UK.,Genome Damage and Stability Centre, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, United Kingdom.,Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA.,Cancer Immunology Discovery, Pfizer Inc., 230 E. Grand Ave, South San Francisco, CA, 94080, USA.,Department of Biochemistry, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address: maria.schumacher@duke.edu.,Center for Computational Mass Spectrometry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA; Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA; Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.,BioMedical Research Centre, University of East Anglia, NR4 7TJ Norwich, United Kingdom; c.dong@uea.ac.uk nathalie.juge@quadram.ac.uk.,Laboratory for Functional Genomics of Extremophiles, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.,BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.,Laboratory of Biophysics, Department of Cell Biology, University of Brasilia, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Asa Norte, Brasília, DF, 70910-900, Brazil.,Meyer Cancer Center, Department of Medicine , Weill Cornell Medical College , New York , New York 10065 , United States.,Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Humboldtstraße 50/3, 8010, Graz, Austria. m.oberer@uni-graz.at.,Shanghai Science Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204, China.,Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics , University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry , Rochester , New York 14642 , United States.,BioTechMed-Graz, Mozartgasse 12/II, 8010, Graz, Austria.,Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address: andrew_kruse@hms.harvard.edu.,Structural Genomics Consortium , University of Oxford , Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive , Oxford OX3 7DQ , U.K.,Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore.,Core Labs, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.,California Institute for Biomedical Research , 11119 North Torrey Pines Road , La Jolla , California 92037 , United States.,Laboratory of Biophysics, Department of Cell Biology, University of Brasilia, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Asa Norte, Brasília, DF, 70910-900, Brazil. Electronic address: joaobarbosa@unb.br.,Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.,Antibody and Vaccine Group, Cancer Sciences Unit, University of Southampton Faculty of Medicine, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK.,Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, India.,Research Centre for Molecular Cancer Prevention, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.,Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.,Department of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Pavia, Italy.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.,d Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute , The University of Melbourne , Parkville , Australia.,Department of Chemistry , Simon Fraser University , Burnaby , British Columbia V5A 1S6 , Canada . Email: dvocadlo@sfu.ca.,Institute of Organic Chemistry, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010, Graz, Austria.,Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.,Fujian Collaborative Innovation Center for Exploitation and Utilization of Marine Biological Resources , Xiamen , Fujian 361100 , China.,Institute of Biochemistry, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.,Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.,UCLA-DOE Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.,Institute for Protein Dynamics, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto, Japan.,State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Institute of Marine Microbes and Ecospheres, Xiamen University, Xiamen, People's Republic of China.,Department of Biophysics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.,Department of Food Science, National (Taiwan) Ocean University, Keelung, 202, Taiwan.,Université de Lille, CHU Lille, Inserm, UMR-S 1172 - JPArc - Centre de Recherche Jean-Pierre AUBERT Neurosciences et Cancer, Lille, France.,Protein Structure Laboratory, Del Shankel Structural Biology Center, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, 66045.,Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 3TA, United Kingdom.,the Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan.,Center for Blood Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. chris.overall@ubc.ca.,2National Engineering Laboratory of Industrial Enzymes, Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin, 300308 China.,From the State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, zczhou@sibcb.ac.cn.,School of Life Sciences, Anhui University, 111 Jiulong Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230601, China. Electronic address: tangrp99@iccas.ac.cn.,Institute of Molecular Genetics , The Czech Academy of Sciences , Vídeňská 1083 , 142 20 Prague , Czech Republic.,c School of Cancer Medicine , La Trobe University , Melbourne , Australia.,Department of Biomolecular Mechanisms, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.,Department of Oral Immunology and Infectious Diseases, University of Louisville School of Dentistry, 501 South Preston Street, Louisville, KY, 40202, USA. jan.potempa@icloud.com.,Graduate Division of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan.,Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.,CSIRO Agriculture and Food , 306 Carmody Road , St. Lucia , Queensland 4067 , Australia.,Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.,Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit , AstraZeneca , S-43183 Mölndal , Sweden.,Malopolska Centre of Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7A, PL-30-387, Kraków, Poland.,Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907; mr@purdue.edu.,Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, Chengdu, China. chengwei669@scu.edu.cn.,Computational Science and Engineering Division , Oak Ridge National Laboratory , Oak Ridge , Tennessee 37830 , United States.,Department of Chemistry , The Scripps Research Institute , 10550 North Torrey Pines Road , La Jolla , California 92037 , United States.,Department of Polar Sciences, University of Science and Technology, Incheon, Republic of Korea.,Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, CAS Key Laboratory of Innate Immunity and Chronic Disease, School of Life Sciences and Medical Center , University of Science & Technology of China , Hefei 230007 , China.,From the Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 and.,Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, 117543, Singapore.,Laboratory Animal Center , Daegu-Gyeongbuk Medical Innovation Foundation , Daegu 41061 , South Korea.,SAXS/WAXS, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Australia.,Department of Informatics, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstrasse 3, 85748 Garching, Germany. Institute for Advanced Study (TUM-IAS), Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstrasse 3, 85748 Garching, Germany.,National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, CAS Center for Excellence in Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing, China.,Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Department of Structural Cell Biology, Martinsried, Germany.,Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. bryan_roth@med.unc.edu.,the School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, and.,Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, India. pravshai@gmail.com.,Department of Chemistry , University of Rochester , Rochester , New York 14627 , United States.,Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Schöpfstrasse 41, Innsbruck A-6020, Austria.,Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanhai Road 7, Qingdao 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China.,Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry , The Czech Academy of Sciences , Flemingovo nám. 2 , 166 10 Prague 6 , Czech Republic.,Division of Biological Chemistry, Biocenter, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innrain 80, Innsbruck A-6020, Austria klaus.scheffzek@i-med.ac.at klaus.liedl@uibk.ac.at pidder.jansen-duerr@uibk.ac.at.,Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori, Akoh, Hyogo 678-1297, muramoto@sci.u-hyogo.ac.jp.,Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City, 402, Taiwan.,Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA, United Kingdom; Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, United Kingdom.,Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6001 Forest Park Road, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA. Hongtao.Yu@utsouthwestern.edu.,Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, Italy.,Bridge Institute, USC Michelson Center for Convergent Biosciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. katritch@usc.edu.,Department of Structural Biology, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.,Research Center for Materials Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.,Botnar Research Centre, Oxford Biomedical Research Unit, Oxford OX3 7LD, U.K.,Nuffield Department of Medicine Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7FZ, UK. andrew.mcmichael@ndm.ox.ac.uk.,Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea.,RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.,Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, Søltofts Plads building 224, Kgs Lyngby, 2800, Denmark.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, United Kingdom.,Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. Electronic address: jaehyuncho@tamu.edu.,Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232.,Biophysics Program, Departments of Computer Science, Structural Biology, and Molecular and Cellular Physiology, and Institute for Computational and Mathematical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.,Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Georgia, College of Veterinary Medicine, Athens, GA 30602, USA.,Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (CIB-CSIC), Structural and Chemical Biology Dep., Madrid, Spain.,Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.,Integral Molecular Inc., Philadelphia, PA 19104.,Department of Biochemistry, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, United States.,ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 23 Innovation Walk, Monash University, Victoria, 3800, Australia. James.Whisstock@monash.edu.,a La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science , La Trobe University , Melbourne , Australia.,the Infection and Immunity Research Laboratory, Metabolic Regulation Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 34141, and.,Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.,Departments of Microbiology, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, Texas, 75390.,Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.,BrisSynBio, University of Bristol, Life Sciences Building, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, UK.,Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-8589, Japan.,Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA; Structural Biology Center, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA; Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, Consortium for Advanced Science and Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.,National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India.,Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria, 3168, Australia.,Oulu Center for Cell-Matrix Research, Biocenter Oulu and Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.,Target Discovery Institute, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, OX3 7FZ, UK.,IMCA-CAT, Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute, Argonne, Illinois, 60439.,From the Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6, Canada and.,Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Oxford, Headington, OX3 7DQ, U.K.,Department of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea; School of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea.,Asubio Pharma Co., Ltd., 6-4-3 Minatojima-Minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047, Japan. Electronic address: murafuji.hidenobu.bj@daiichisankyo.co.jp.,Broad Institute, Cambridge, MA 02142.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114.,Faculty of Science, Nara Women's University, Nara, Japan.,b Cell Death and Survival Group , Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research Institute , Heidelberg , Australia.,Synchrotron Radiation Research Organization, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. chris.overall@ubc.ca.,Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanhai Road 7, Qingdao 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.,Department of Molecular Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, Scripps Florida, Jupiter, FL, 33458, USA.,Department of Pharmacy, Graduate School, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea.,Department of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea.,Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. fm123@cumc.columbia.edu.,Institut de Biologie Structurale, Université Grenoble Alpes-CEA-CNRS, Grenoble, France.,Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (CIB-CSIC), Structural and Chemical Biology Dep., Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: cvega@cib.csic.es.,Institute of General, Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 82, Innsbruck A-6020, Austria.,Institute of Crystallography, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), 70126 Bari, Italy.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.,Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Genetics and Genome Biology Program, SickKids Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada; Heart & Stroke Richard Lewar Centre of Excellence in Cardiovascular Research, Toronto, ON, Canada.,Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea.,School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, United Kingdom.,Department of Anesthesiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105, USA.,Division of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Computational Bioscience Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.,Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.,Department of Biochemistry, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.,Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON M5G 1X5, Canada.,Molecular Discovery Technologies, Bristol-Myers Squibb Research and Development, PO Box 4000, Princeton, NJ 08543-4000, USA.,Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA, USA.,School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's Close, Bristol, BS8 1TS, UK.,Higuchi Biosciences Center, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, 66047.,Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.,Division of Polar Life Sciences, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon, Republic of Korea.,Department of Radiation Oncology, Perlmutter Cancer Center , NYU Langone Medical Center , New York , New York 10016 , United States.,Randall Centre for Cell and Molecular Biophysics, 3rd Floor New Hunt's House, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, SE1 1UL, UK. mark.sanderson@kcl.ac.uk.,Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA.,Program in Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305.,Department of Cardiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, United States.,Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea. jaehyun.park@postech.ac.kr.,Laboratory of Bioinorganic Chemistry, Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Viale G. Fanin 40, I-40127 Bologna, Italy. stefano.ciurli@unibo.it.,From the Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 and christine.m.dunham@emory.edu.,Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währinger Straße 38, Vienna A-1090, Austria.,Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Northeastern Collaborative Access Team, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, IL 60439, USA.,Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudniy, Russia.,Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 112, Taiwan.,Consorzio Interuniversitario di Reattività Chimica e Catalisi (CIRCC) , via Celso Ulpiani 27 , 70126 Bari , Italy.,Grenoble Outstation, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, Grenoble 38042, France.,Nuffield Department of Medicine Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7FZ, UK.,Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6001 Forest Park Road, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA. Xuelian.Luo@utsouthwestern.edu.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6001 Forest Park Road, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA.,Department of Molecular & Cellular Biochemistry, and Center for Structural Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA. Electronic address: kkorotkov@uky.edu.,Isotope Laboratory , Institute of Experimental Botany, The Czech Academy of Sciences , Vídeňská 1083 , 142 20 Prague , Czech Republic.,Division of Biological Chemistry, Biocenter, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innrain 80, Innsbruck A-6020, Austria.,Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232.,BioMedical Research Centre, University of East Anglia, NR4 7TJ Norwich, United Kingdom.,Collaborative Research Institute for Innovative Microbiology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.,e Structural Biology Division , The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research , Parkville , Australia.,Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London, SW7 2AZ, UK.,Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Campus, Basel, Switzerland. frederic.bornancin@novartis.com.,Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 23 Innovation Walk, Monash University, Victoria, 3800, Australia.,School of Pharmacy, University of East Anglia, NR4 7TJ Norwich, United Kingdom.,Antibody and Vaccine Group, Cancer Sciences Unit, University of Southampton Faculty of Medicine, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK. Electronic address: ann.white@ucb.com.,Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto, Japan tendo@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp.,Shanghai ChemPartner Co. Ltd., 998 Halei Road, Pudong New Area, Shanghai 201203, China.,Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.,Institut Pasteur, Unité de Bioinformatique Structurale, Département de Biologie Structurale et Chimie, CNRS-UMR 3528, Paris, France.,State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China.,Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases, IMED Biotech Unit , AstraZeneca , 141 57 Huddinge , Sweden.,Division of Biochemical Sciences, CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India.,Henry Wellcome Building for Molecular Physiology, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7LD, U.K.,Boehringer Ingelheim RCV GmbH & Co. KG , Doktor-Boehringer-Gasse 5-11 , 1120 Vienna , Austria.,Fakultät für Biologie, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.,International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Trojdena 4, 02-109 Warsaw, Poland; Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznan, Poland. Electronic address: iamb@genesilico.pl.,Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.,Achtseweg Noord 5, Building, 5651 GG, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.,Laboratory of Growth Regulators , Palacký University and Institute of Experimental Botany, The Czech Academy of Sciences , Šlechtitelů 27 , 783 71 Olomouc , Czech Republic.,Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, CNRS, BIG-LCBM, UMR5249, 38000, Grenoble, France. sollagnier@cea.fr.,Research Institute for Biomedical Aging Research, University of Innsbruck, Rennweg 10, Innsbruck A-6020, Austria klaus.scheffzek@i-med.ac.at klaus.liedl@uibk.ac.at pidder.jansen-duerr@uibk.ac.at.,Drug Discovery Unit, Division of Biological Chemistry and Drug Discovery, School of Life Sciences , University of Dundee , James Black Centre, Dow Street , Dundee DD1 5EH , Scotland, U.K.,The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, 3052, Australia; Department of Medical Biology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, 3010, Australia.,Purdue Institute for Inflammation, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.,Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences , 190 Kaiyuan Avenue , Guangzhou 510530 , China.,Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanhai Road 7, Qingdao 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address: jiangpeng@qdio.ac.cn.,Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, 4058 Basel, Switzerland. benajmin_ebert@dfci.harvard.edu nicolas.thoma@fmi.ch.,School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.,Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.,Laboratory of Basic Science on Healthy Longevity, Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan. amtanok@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp.,Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531, Japan.,Groningen Biomolecular Sciences & Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, Groningen, 9747 AG, The Netherlands.,School of Biochemistry, University of Bristol, Medical Sciences Building, University Walk, Bristol, BS8 1TD, UK. D.N.Woolfson@bristol.ac.uk.,National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Nuclear Receptor Signals and Hormone Research Center, School of Biological Sciences and Technology , Chonnam National University , Gwangju 61186 , South Korea.,Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Ikarashi 2-8050, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181, Japan.,Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.,Department of Biointeractions and Crop Protection, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, UK.,EMBL Australia, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. James.Whisstock@monash.edu.,Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, ul. Gronostajowa 7, 30-387, Kraków, Poland. jan.potempa@icloud.com.,RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo, 679-5148, Japan.,Laboratory for Functional Genomics of Extremophiles, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan kawarabayasi.yutaka@nifty.com.,Department of Oral Biological and Medical Science, Faculty of Dentistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. chris.overall@ubc.ca.,Instituto Biofisika (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Universidad del País Vasco), University of Basque Country, 48940 Leioa, Spain alvaro.villarroel@csic.es omillet@cicbiogune.es.,Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7LD, UK.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6001 Forest Park Road, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA. Hongtao.Yu@utsouthwestern.edu.,Discovery Safety, Drug Safety and Metabolism, IMED Biotech Unit , AstraZeneca , Waltham , Massachusetts 02451 , United States.,Medicines Discovery Institute , Cardiff University , Main Building, Park Place , Cardiff CF10 3AT , United Kingdom.,Laboratório de Cristalografia de Proteínas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstraße 108, 01307 Dresden, Germany jlauer@mpi-cbg.de wim.versees@vub.be.,Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.,School of Life Sciences, Anhui University, 111 Jiulong Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230601, China; Key Laboratory of Human Microenvironment and Precision Medicine of Anhui Higher Education Institutes, Anhui University, 111 Jiulong Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230601, China. Electronic address: zhmin07@ahu.edu.cn.,Institute of Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery, Departments of Chemistry and Radiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA.,Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark.,Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, United States.,The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232.,From the Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141, bhoh@kaist.ac.kr.,Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Shandong Institute of Parasitic Disease, Jining, China.,MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Garscube Campus, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom.,Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.,Université de Rennes 1, Equipe Chimie organique et interfaces (CORINT), UMR 6226 Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Rennes, France.,Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8, Canada.,Transcription Regulation group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India.,Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address: vguixe@uchile.cl.,UK Dementia Research Institute at King's College London, UK.,Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. katritch@usc.edu.,Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan.,Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110.,Department of Biochemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.,Department of Biophysics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6001 Forest Park Road, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA.,Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated, 50 Northern Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, United States.,Division of Disease Proteomics, Institute of Advanced Medical Sciences , Tokushima University , 3-18-15 Kuramoto-cho , Tokushima 770-8503 , Japan.,Department of Molecular & Cellular Biochemistry, and Center for Structural Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA.,School of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UK.,Epigenetics Discovery Performance Unit, GlaxoSmithKline R&D, Stevenage Hertfordshire SG1 2NY, United Kingdom.,Aniscien Co., Ltd., Jeonju, Republic of Korea.,Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.,Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Genetics and Genome Biology Program, SickKids Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada.,Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine , Kyungpook National University , Daegu 41944 , South Korea.,Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States.,Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ivan.dikic@biochem2.de.,VA Tennessee Valley Healthcare System , 1310 24th Avenue S. , Nashville , Tennessee 37212 , United States.,Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114.,Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Natural Resources and Life Science/Life and Industry Convergence Research Institute , Pusan National University , Pusan 50463 , South Korea.,From the State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031.,Molecular Medicine, Scripps Research, United States.,School of Chemistry & Biochemistry , Georgia Institute of Technology , Atlanta , Georgia 30332-0400 , United States.,T-Cell Modulation Group, Division of Infection and Immunity, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, United Kingdom.,Bridge Institute, USC Michelson Center for Convergent Biosciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.,Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100093, China.,Structural Biology Brussels, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.,Oncology Chemistry, IMED Biotech Unit , AstraZeneca , Cambridge CB4 0WG , U.K.,Department of Cell Biochemistry, University of Groningen, Groningen 9747 AG, The Netherlands.,Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science , Chulalongkorn University , Bangkok 10330 , Thailand.,Infectious Diseases Discovery , GlaxoSmithKline , 1250 South Collegeville Road , Collegeville , Pennsylvania 19426 , United States.,International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Trojdena 4, 02-109 Warsaw, Poland.,Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck (CMBI), University of Innsbruck, Innrain 80-82, Innsbruck A-6020, Austria klaus.scheffzek@i-med.ac.at klaus.liedl@uibk.ac.at pidder.jansen-duerr@uibk.ac.at.,British Heart Foundation Centre of Excellence, The Rayne Institute, St. Thomas' Hospital, and.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.,VIB Switch Laboratory, VIB, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.,Department of Bioengineering, and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, James H. Clark Center, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.,Bioinformatics Facility, The Francis Crick Institute, London, United Kingdom.,Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan.,From the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 olsensk@musc.edu.,Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), Singapore.,Center for RNA Biology , University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry , Rochester , New York 14642 , United States.,the Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322.,Randall Centre for Cell and Molecular Biophysics, 3rd Floor New Hunt's House, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, SE1 1UL, UK.,Nancy B. and Jake L. Hamon Centre for Therapeutic Oncology Research, Departments of Surgery and Pharmacology , University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas , 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard , Dallas , Texas 75390 , United States.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38043 Grenoble, France.,CRUK Beatson Institute, Garscube Campus, Glasgow, Scotland United Kingdom.,Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.,Institut Pasteur, Plateforme de Cristallographie, Département de Biologie Structurale et Chimie, CNRS-UMR 3528, Paris, France.,Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305; kcgarcia@stanford.edu.,The Wohl Institute, King's College London, UK.,Charnwood Molecular , Loughborough LE11 5DA , U.K.,Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA, United Kingdom.,3College of Life Sciences, Hubei University, Wuhan, 430062 China.,Institute of Biochemistry II, Goethe University Frankfurt - Medical Faculty, University Hospital, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.,Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Zhangjiang Lab, Shanghai, China.,Department of Bioengineering, and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, James H. Clark Center, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA. Electronic address: wahc@stanford.edu.,Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.,Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche , Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo , via Cintia 21 , 80126 Napoli , Italy.,Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.,Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics Graduate Group, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.,Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.,Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA; Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, Consortium for Advanced Science and Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.,Anacor Pharmaceuticals, Palo Alto, CA, USA.,Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA; Structural Biology Center, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA; Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, Consortium for Advanced Science and Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Electronic address: andrzejj@anl.gov.,Dunn School of Pathology , University of Oxford , Oxford OX1 3RE , United Kingdom.,From the Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6, Canada and boraston@uvic.ca.,Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry , University of Athens , Panepistimiopolis Zografou, 15771 Athens , Greece.,Bioscience Division, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA, USA.,The Randall Centre for Cell & Molecular Biophysics, King's College London, UK.,School of Science , Edith Cowan University , 270 Joondalup Drive , Joondalup , WA 6027 , Australia.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.,Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.,Division of Translational Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg and German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.,Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering , North Carolina State University , Raleigh , North Carolina 27695-7905 , United States.,Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK; Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK.,Department of Chemistry , Vanderbilt University , Nashville , Tennessee 37232-0146 , United States.,Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, ul. Gronostajowa 7, 30-387, Kraków, Poland.,National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Bioproduction Research Institute, Ibaraki, Japan.,Discovery Partnerships with Academia, GlaxoSmithKline, Medicines Research Centre, Stevenage, United Kingdom.,Molecular and Clinical Sciences Research Institute, St. George's, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, SW17 0RE, UK. lfisher@sgul.ac.uk.,National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, CAS Center for Excellence in Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing, China.,College of Food and Biological Engineering , Jimei University , Xiamen , Fujian 361021 , China.,the Infection and Immunity Research Laboratory, Metabolic Regulation Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 34141, and jwhwang@kribb.re.kr.,Immunocore LTD, Oxford, United Kingdom.,From the Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141.,Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305.,Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, United States.,Research Center for Materials Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8602, Japan.,Japan Science and Technology Agency/Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.,Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6001 Forest Park Road, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA.,Department of Chemistry, University of Milano, Italy.,College of Life Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, People's Republic of China.,Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry , Simon Fraser University , Burnaby , British Columbia V5A 1S6 , Canada.,Biostructural Mechanism Laboratory, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Sayo, Japan.,Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7BN, UK.,the Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, and.,Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6001 Forest Park Road, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA.,Unit of Polar Genomics, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon, Republic of Korea.,UCL School of Pharmacy , University College London , London WC1N 1AX , United Kingdom.,School of Biochemistry, University of Bristol, Medical Sciences Building, University Walk, Bristol, BS8 1TD, UK.,Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. Electronic address: rebeccapage@email.arizona.edu.,New York Consortium on Membrane Protein Structure, New York Structural Biology Center, 89 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10027, USA.,School of Life Sciences, Anhui University, 111 Jiulong Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230601, China; Key Laboratory of Human Microenvironment and Precision Medicine of Anhui Higher Education Institutes, Anhui University, 111 Jiulong Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230601, China.,Laboratory of Toxinology, University of Brasília, DF, Brazil.,the Department of Food Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea.,New Drug Development Center , Daegu-Gyeongbuk Medical Innovation Foundation , Daegu 41061 , South Korea.,From the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425.,The Randall Division, New Hunt's House, Guy's Campus, King's College London, United Kingdom.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 3200003, Israel.,Simons Electron Microscopy Center, New York Structural Biology Center, New York, United States.,Mycobacteria Research Laboratories, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.,Shanghai Universities Collaborative Innovation Center for Translational Medicine, Shanghai, China.,Department of Computational Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, 38105-3678, USA.,Research Institute for Biomedical Aging Research, University of Innsbruck, Rennweg 10, Innsbruck A-6020, Austria.,International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Trojdena 4, 02-109 Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address: kskowronek@iimcb.gov.pl.,Changhai Hospital , Second Military Medical University , Shanghai 200433 , China . Email: drsujiacan@163.com.,Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.,Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, Chengdu, China.,Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing, 100048, China.,The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, 3052, Australia.,Division of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. structures@korea.ac.kr.,From the Picobiology Institute and.,Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.,Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas; School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address: hwm@tamu.edu.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. Department of Systems Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.,Department of Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, 38105-3678, USA.,VIB-VUB Center for Structural Biology, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.,Department of Oral Immunology and Infectious Diseases, University of Louisville School of Dentistry, Louisville, Kentucky, 40202.,Key Laboratory of RNA Biology, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.,Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. cherezov@usc.edu.,Structural Genomics Consortium, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK; Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK. Electronic address: panagis.filippakopoulos@sgc.ox.ac.uk.,Systems Immunity Research Institute, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, United Kingdom.,Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 37673, Republic of Korea.,Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. benajmin_ebert@dfci.harvard.edu nicolas.thoma@fmi.ch.,National Institute of Mental Health Psychoactive Drug Screening Program, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.,Thermo Fisher Scientific, San Jose, CA, USA.,Bristol-Myers Squibb, 700 Bay Rd, Redwood City, CA, 94063, USA.,Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Campus, Basel, Switzerland.,AbbVie Biotherapeutics, Inc., Redwood City, CA, USA.,Structural Genomics Consortium, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK.,Cancer Immunology Discovery, Pfizer Inc., 230 E. Grand Ave, South San Francisco, CA, 94080, USA. javier.chaparro-riggers@pfizer.com.,Department of Life Science, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea.,Proteolysis Lab, Structural Biology Unit, "María de Maeztu" Unit of Excellence, Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona (CSIC), Barcelona Science Park, Helix Building, c/Baldiri Reixac, 15-21, 08028, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. fxgr@ibmb.csic.es.,Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1L7, Canada.,School of Pharmacy , Second Military Medical University , Shanghai 200433 , China.,Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 115, Taiwan.,Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. bryan_roth@med.unc.edu.,The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, 3052, Australia; Department of Medical Biology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, 3010, Australia. Electronic address: sleebs@wehi.edu.au.,ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 23 Innovation Walk, Monash University, Victoria, 3800, Australia. Michelle.Dunstone@monash.edu.,Transcription Regulation group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India. Electronic address: neelsb@icgeb.res.in.,Department of Biology and Biotechnology "L. Spallanzani", University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.,Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, 66045.,Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055, United States; Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2216, United States; Program in Chemical Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2216, United States.,Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA.,Switch Laboratory, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, PB 802, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.,Department of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: eric.diluccio@gmail.com.,Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Campus, Basel, Switzerland. jean.quancard@novartis.com.,Nuffield Department of Medicine Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7FZ, UK. geraldine.gillespie@ndm.ox.ac.uk.,Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, 66047.,Department of Systems Biology , Harvard Medical School , Boston , Massachusetts 02215 , United States.,Institute of Complex Systems (ICS), ICS-6: Structural Biochemistry, Research Centre Juelich, Juelich, Germany.,Institute of Biochemistry II, Goethe University Frankfurt - Medical Faculty, University Hospital, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ivan.dikic@biochem2.de.,Center for Integrated Protein Sciences Munich, Munich, Germany.,Department of Material and Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, Yamagata, Japan.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, 66506.,Cancer Research UK DNA Repair Enzymes Group, Genome Damage and Stability Centre, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, United Kingdom.,Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115.,Protein Stability and Inherited Disease Laboratory, Center for Cooperative Research in Biosciences CIC bioGUNE, 48170 Derio, Spain.,Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, and Rogel Cancer Center , University of Michigan , Ann Arbor , Michigan 48109 , United States.,Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India.,National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, CAS Center for Excellence in Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing, China. Electronic address: rmxu@ibp.ac.cn.,National Synchrotron Light Source-II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA.,CSIRO Health and Biosecurity, Adelaide, SA, 5000, Australia.,School of Life Sciences, Anhui University, 111 Jiulong Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230601, China; Key Laboratory of Human Microenvironment and Precision Medicine of Anhui Higher Education Institutes, Anhui University, 111 Jiulong Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230601, China; Department of Biological and Food Engineering, Bozhou University, 2266 Tangwang Road, Bozhou, Anhui, China.,Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute and Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, OR, 97006, USA.,Institute of Human Virology and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology , University of Maryland , School of Medicine , Baltimore , MD , USA . Email: mpazgier@ihv.umaryland.edu ; Email: wlu@ihv.umaryland.edu.,Department of Biochemistry, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA.,Purdue Institute of Immunology, Inflammation and Infectious Diseases and Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.,Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30-387, Kraków, Poland.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK.,York Structural Biology Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, The University of York, York YO10 5DD, England.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2
A, C, E, G, I, K, M, O, Q, S, U, W
85Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: MDM2
EC: 2.3.2.27
Find proteins for Q00987 (Homo sapiens)
Go to Gene View: MDM2
Go to UniProtKB:  Q00987
Entity ID: 2
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
Lysine-cysteine side chain dithiocarbamate stapled peptide inhibitor PMI
B, D, F, H, J, L, N, P, R, T, V, X
14N/AMutation(s): 0 
Protein Feature View is not available: No corresponding UniProt sequence found.
Small Molecules
Ligands 1 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
CL
Query on CL

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
C, X
CHLORIDE ION
Cl
VEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-M
 Ligand Interaction
Modified Residues  3 Unique
IDChainsTypeFormula2D DiagramParent
NH2
Query on NH2
B, D, F, H, J, L, N, P, R, T, V, X
NON-POLYMERH2 N

--

9E7
Query on 9E7
B, D, F, H, J, L, N, P, R, T, V, X
L-peptide linkingC7 H16 N2 O2 SLYS
ACE
Query on ACE
B, D, F, H, J, L, N, P, R, T, V, X
NON-POLYMERC2 H4 O

--

Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.8 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.247 
  • R-Value Work: 0.198 
  • Space Group: C 2 2 21
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 90.838α = 90.00
b = 157.470β = 90.00
c = 196.650γ = 90.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
PHASERphasing
HKL-2000data reduction
HKL-2000data scaling
REFMACrefinement

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History & Funding Information

Deposition Data


Funding OrganizationLocationGrant Number
National Institutes of Health/National Institute Of Allergy and Infectious DiseasesUnited StatesR01AI116274

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2018-04-25
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2019-01-30
    Type: Data collection, Database references, Source and taxonomy
  • Version 1.2: 2019-03-13
    Type: Data collection, Database references