Modulating the DNA polymerase beta reaction equilibrium to dissect the reverse reaction.Shock, D.D., Freudenthal, B.D., Beard, W.A., Wilson, S.H.
(2017) Nat. Chem. Biol. 13: 1074-1080
- PubMed: 28759020
- DOI: 10.1038/nchembio.2450
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:  5UGN, 5UGO
- PubMed Abstract:
DNA polymerases catalyze efficient and high-fidelity DNA synthesis. While this reaction favors nucleotide incorporation, polymerases also catalyze a reverse reaction, pyrophosphorolysis, that removes the DNA primer terminus and generates deoxynucleos ...
DNA polymerases catalyze efficient and high-fidelity DNA synthesis. While this reaction favors nucleotide incorporation, polymerases also catalyze a reverse reaction, pyrophosphorolysis, that removes the DNA primer terminus and generates deoxynucleoside triphosphates. Because pyrophosphorolysis can influence polymerase fidelity and sensitivity to chain-terminating nucleosides, we analyzed pyrophosphorolysis with human DNA polymerase β and found the reaction to be inefficient. The lack of a thio-elemental effect indicated that this reaction was limited by a nonchemical step. Use of a pyrophosphate analog, in which the bridging oxygen is replaced with an imido group (PNP), increased the rate of the reverse reaction and displayed a large thio-elemental effect, indicating that chemistry was now rate determining. Time-lapse crystallography with PNP captured structures consistent with a chemical equilibrium favoring the reverse reaction. These results highlight the importance of the bridging atom between the β- and γ-phosphates of the incoming nucleotide in reaction chemistry, enzyme conformational changes, and overall reaction equilibrium.
Genome Integrity and Structural Biology Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.