Crystal structure of Bos taurus opsin at 2.7 Angstrom

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.70 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.254 
  • R-Value Work: 0.245 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.245 

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Photocyclic behavior of rhodopsin induced by an atypical isomerization mechanism.

Gulati, S.Jastrzebska, B.Banerjee, S.Placeres, A.L.Miszta, P.Gao, S.Gunderson, K.Tochtrop, G.P.Filipek, S.Katayama, K.Kiser, P.D.Mogi, M.Stewart, P.L.Palczewski, K.

(2017) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114: E2608-E2615

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1617446114
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    5TE3, 5TE5

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Vertebrate rhodopsin (Rh) contains 11- cis -retinal as a chromophore to convert light energy into visual signals. On absorption of light, 11- cis -retinal is isomerized to all- trans -retinal, constituting a one-way reaction that activates transducin (G t ) followed by chromophore release. Here we report that bovine Rh, regenerated instead with a six-carbon-ring retinal chromophore featuring a C 11 =C 12 double bond locked in its cis conformation (Rh6mr), employs an atypical isomerization mechanism by converting 11- cis to an 11,13- dicis configuration for prolonged G t activation. Time-dependent UV-vis spectroscopy, HPLC, and molecular mechanics analyses revealed an atypical thermal reisomerization of the 11,13- dicis to the 11- cis configuration on a slow timescale, which enables Rh6mr to function in a photocyclic manner similar to that of microbial Rhs. With this photocyclic behavior, Rh6mr repeatedly recruits and activates G t in response to light stimuli, making it an excellent candidate for optogenetic tools based on retinal analog-bound vertebrate Rhs. Overall, these comprehensive structure-function studies unveil a unique photocyclic mechanism of Rh activation by an 11- cis -to-11,13- dicis isomerization.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Rhodopsin348Bos taurusMutation(s): 0 
Membrane Entity: Yes 
Find proteins for P02699 (Bos taurus)
Explore P02699 
Go to UniProtKB:  P02699
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP02699
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence


Entity ID: 2
MoleculeChains Length2D Diagram Glycosylation3D Interactions
Glycosylation Resources
GlyTouCan:  G81315DD
GlyCosmos:  G81315DD
GlyGen:  G81315DD
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.70 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.254 
  • R-Value Work: 0.245 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.245 
  • Space Group: H 3 2
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 242.66α = 90
b = 242.66β = 90
c = 111.77γ = 120
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
XDSdata reduction
XSCALEdata scaling

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2017-03-15
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2017-03-29
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.2: 2017-04-05
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 2.0: 2020-07-29
    Type: Remediation
    Reason: Carbohydrate remediation
    Changes: Atomic model, Data collection, Derived calculations, Structure summary
  • Version 2.1: 2023-10-04
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Derived calculations, Refinement description, Structure summary