Structural and Kinetic Characterization of 4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxoglutarate/4-Carboxy-4-hydroxy-2-oxoadipate Aldolase, a Protocatechuate Degradation Enzyme Evolutionarily Convergent with the HpaI and DmpG Pyruvate Aldolases.Wang, W., Mazurkewich, S., Kimber, M.S., Seah, S.Y.
(2010) J.Biol.Chem. 285: 36608-36615
- PubMed: 20843800
- DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M110.159509
- PubMed Abstract:
4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxoglutarate/4-carboxy-4-hydroxy-2-oxoadipate (HMG/CHA) aldolase from Pseudomonas putida F1 catalyzes the last step of the bacterial protocatechuate 4,5-cleavage pathway. The preferred substrates of the enzyme are 2-keto-4-hydrox ...
4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxoglutarate/4-carboxy-4-hydroxy-2-oxoadipate (HMG/CHA) aldolase from Pseudomonas putida F1 catalyzes the last step of the bacterial protocatechuate 4,5-cleavage pathway. The preferred substrates of the enzyme are 2-keto-4-hydroxy acids with a 4-carboxylate substitution. The enzyme also exhibits oxaloacetate decarboxylation and pyruvate α-proton exchange activity. Sodium oxalate is a competitive inhibitor of the aldolase reaction. The pH dependence of k(cat)/K(m) and k(cat) for the enzyme is consistent with a single deprotonation with pK(a) values of 8.0 ± 0.1 and 7.0 ± 0.1 for free enzyme and enzyme substrate complex, respectively. The 1.8 Å x-ray structure shows a four-layered α-β-β-α sandwich structure with the active site at the interface of two adjacent subunits of a hexamer; this fold resembles the RNase E inhibitor, RraA, but is novel for an aldolase. The catalytic site contains a magnesium ion ligated by Asp-124 as well as three water molecules bound by Asp-102 and Glu-199'. A pyruvate molecule binds the magnesium ion through both carboxylate and keto oxygen atoms, completing the octahedral geometry. The carbonyl oxygen also forms hydrogen bonds with the guanadinium group of Arg-123, which site-directed mutagenesis confirms is essential for catalysis. A mechanism for HMG/CHA aldolase is proposed on the basis of the structure, kinetics, and previously established features of other aldolase mechanisms.
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada.