1L63

ANALYSIS OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN CHARGED SIDE CHAINS AND THE ALPHA-HELIX DIPOLE USING DESIGNED THERMOSTABLE MUTANTS OF PHAGE T4 LYSOZYME


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.75 Å

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.3 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

Analysis of the interaction between charged side chains and the alpha-helix dipole using designed thermostable mutants of phage T4 lysozyme.

Nicholson, H.Anderson, D.E.Dao-pin, S.Matthews, B.W.

(1991) Biochemistry 30: 9816-9828

  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • It was shown previously that the introduction of a negatively charged amino acid at the N-terminus of an alpha-helix could increase the thermostability of phage T4 lysozyme via an electrostatic interaction with the "helix dipole" [Nicholson, H., Beck ...

    It was shown previously that the introduction of a negatively charged amino acid at the N-terminus of an alpha-helix could increase the thermostability of phage T4 lysozyme via an electrostatic interaction with the "helix dipole" [Nicholson, H., Becktel, W. J., & Matthews, B. W. (1988) Nature 336, 651-656]. The prior report focused on the two stabilizing substitutions Ser 38----Asp (S38D) and Asn 144----Asp (N144D). Two additional examples of stabilizing mutants, T109D and N116D, are presented here. Both show the pH-dependent increase in thermal stability expected for the interaction of an aspartic acid with an alpha-helix dipole. Control mutants were also constructed to further characterize the nature of the interaction with the alpha-helix dipole. High-resolution crystal structure analysis was used to determine the nature of the interaction of the substituted amino acids with the end of the alpha-helix in both the primary and the control mutants. Control mutant S38N has stability essentially the same as that of wild-type lysozyme but hydrogen bonding similar to that of the stabilizing mutant S38D. This confirms that it is the electrostatic interaction between Asp 38 and the helix dipole, rather than a change in hydrogen-bonding geometry, that gives enhanced stability. Structural and thermodynamic analysis of mutant T109N provide a similar control for the stabilizing replacement T109D. In the case of mutant N116D, there was concern that the enhanced stability might be due to a favorable salt-bridge interaction between the introduced aspartate and Arg 119, rather than an interaction with the alpha-helix dipole. The additivity of the stabilities of N116D and R119M seen in the double mutant N116D/R119M indicates that favorable interactions are largely independent of residue 119. As a further control, Asp 92, a presumed helix-stabilizing residue in wild-type lysozyme, was replaced with Asn. This decreased the stability of the protein in the manner expected for the loss of a favorable helix dipole interaction. In total, five mutations have been identified that increase the thermostability of T4 lysozyme and appear to do so by favorable interactions with alpha-helix dipoles. As measured by the pH dependence of stability, the strength of the electrostatic interaction between the charged groups studied here and the helix dipole ranges from 0.6 to 1.3 kcal/mol in 150 mM KCl. In the case of mutants S38D and N144H, NMR titration was used to measure the pKa's of Asp 38 and His 144 in the folded structures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)


    Related Citations: 
    • Contributions of Left-Handed Helical Residues to the Structure and Stability of Bacteriophage T4 Lysozyme
      Nicholson, H.,Soderlind, E.,Tronrud, D.E.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1989) J.Mol.Biol. 210: 181
    • Tolerance of T4 Lysozyme to Multiple Xaa (Right Arrow) Ala Substitutions: A Polyalanine Alpha-Helix Containing Ten Consecutive Alanines
      Heinz, D.W.,Baase, W.A.,Matthews, B.W.
      () TO BE PUBLISHED --: --
    • Tolerance of T4 Lysozyme to Proline Substitutions within the Long Interdomain Alpha-Helix Illustrates the Adaptability of Proteins to Potentially Destabilizing Lesions
      Sauer, U.H.,Dao-Pin, S.,Matthews, B.W.
      () TO BE PUBLISHED --: --
    • Structural Studies of Mutants of the Lysozyme of Bacteriophage T4. The Temperature-Sensitive Mutant Protein Thr157 (Right Arrow) Ile
      Gruetter, M.G.,Gray, T.M.,Weaver, L.H.,Alber, T.,Wilson, K.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1987) J.Mol.Biol. 197: 315
    • Replacements of Pro86 in Phage T4 Lysozyme Extend an Alpha-Helix But Do not Alter Protein Stability
      Alber, T.,Bell, J.A.,Dao-Pin, S.,Nicholson, H.,Cook, J.A.Wozniak S.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1988) Science 239: 631
    • Structural and Thermodynamic Analysis of the Packing of Two Alpha-Helices in Bacteriophage T4 Lysozyme
      Daopin, S.,Alber, T.,Baase, W.A.,Wozniak, J.A.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1991) J.Mol.Biol. 221: 647
    • Cumulative Site-Directed Charge-Change Replacements in Bacteriophage T4 Lysozyme Suggest that Long-Range Electrostatic Interactions Contribute Little to Protein Stability
      Dao-Pin, S.,Soderlind, E.,Baase, W.A.,Wozniak, J.A.,Sauer, U.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1991) J.Mol.Biol. 221: 873
    • Structural Analysis of the Temperature-Sensitive Mutant of Bacteriophage T4 Lysozyme, Glycine 156 (Right Arrow) Aspartic Acid
      Gray, T.M.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1987) J.Biol.Chem. 262: 16858
    • Relation between Hen Egg White Lysozyme and Bacteriophage T4 Lysozyme. Evolutionary Implications
      Matthews, B.W.,Remington, S.J.,Gruetter, M.G.,Anderson, W.F.
      (1981) J.Mol.Biol. 147: 545
    • Common Precursor of Lysozymes of Hen Egg-White and Bacteriophage T4
      Matthews, B.W.,Gruetter, M.G.,Anderson, W.F.,Remington, S.J.
      (1981) Nature 290: 334
    • Nicholson, H.,Becktel, W.,Matthews, B.W.
      () TO BE PUBLISHED --: --
    • Temperature-Sensitive Mutations of Bacteriophage T4 Lysozyme Occur at Sites with Low Mobility and Low Solvent Accessibility in the Folded Protein
      Alber, T.,Dao-Pin, S.,Nye, J.A.,Muchmore, D.C.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1987) Biochemistry 26: 3754
    • The Three Dimensional Structure of the Lysozyme from Bacteriophage T4
      Matthews, B.W.,Remington, S.J.
      (1974) Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 71: 4178
    • Structural Studies of Mutants of T4 Lysozyme that Alter Hydrophobic Stabilization
      Matsumura, M.,Wozniak, J.A.,Dao-Pin, S.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1989) J.Biol.Chem. 264: 16059
    • Atomic Coordinates for T4 Phage Lysozyme
      Remington, S.J.,Teneyck, L.F.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1977) Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 75: 265
    • Structure of Bacteriophage T4 Lysozyme Refined at 1.7 Angstroms Resolution
      Weaver, L.H.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1987) J.Mol.Biol. 193: 189
    • Hydrophobic Stabilization in T4 Lysozyme Determined Directly by Multiple Substitutions of Ile 3
      Matsumura, M.,Becktel, W.J.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1988) Nature 334: 406
    • Enhanced Protein Thermostability from Site-Directed Mutations that Decrease the Entropy of Unfolding
      Matthews, B.W.,Nicholson, H.,Becktel, W.J.
      (1987) Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 84: 6663
    • Multiple Stabilizing Alanine Replacements within Alpha-Helix 126-134 of T4 Lysozyme Have Independent, Additive Effects on Both Structure and Stability
      Zhang, X.-J.,Baase, W.A.,Matthews, B.W.
      () TO BE PUBLISHED --: --
    • Enhanced Protein Thermostability from Designed Mutations that Interact with Alpha-Helix Dipoles
      Nicholson, H.,Becktel, W.J.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1988) Nature 336: 651
    • Comparison of the Predicted and Observed Secondary Structure of T4 Phage Lysozyme
      Matthews, B.W.
      (1975) Biochim.Biophys.Acta 405: 442
    • Structure of a Thermostable Disulfide-Bridge Mutant of Phage T4 Lysozyme Shows that an Engineered Crosslink in a Flexible Region Does not Increase the Rigidity of the Folded Protein
      Pjura, P.E.,Matsumura, M.,Wozniak, J.A.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1990) Biochemistry 29: 2592
    • High-Resolution Structure of the Temperature-Sensitive Mutant of Phage Lysozyme, Arg 96 (Right Arrow) His
      Weaver, L.H.,Gray, T.M.,Gruetter, M.G.,Anderson, D.E.,Wozniak, J.A.,Dahlquist, F.W.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1989) Biochemistry 28: 3793
    • Structure of the Lysozyme from Bacteriophage T4, an Electron Density Map at 2.4 Angstroms Resolution
      Remington, S.J.,Anderson, W.F.,Owen, J.,Teneyck, L.F.,Grainger, C.T.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1978) J.Mol.Biol. 118: 81
    • The Structural and Thermodynamic Consequences of Burying a Charged Residue within the Hydrophobic Core of T4 Lysozyme
      Daopin, S.,Anderson, E.,Baase, W.,Dahlquist, F.W.,Matthews, B.W.
      () TO BE PUBLISHED --: --
    • Toward a Simplification of the Protein Folding Problem: A Stabilizing Polyalanine Alpha-Helix Engineered in T4 Lysozyme
      Zhang, X.-J.,Baase, W.A.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1991) Biochemistry 30: 2012
    • Contributions of Engineered Surface Salt Bridges to the Stability of T4 Lysozyme Determined by Directed Mutagenesis
      Dao-Pin, S.,Sauer, U.,Nicholson, H.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1991) Biochemistry 30: 7142
    • Contributions of Hydrogen Bonds of Thr 157 to the Thermodynamic Stability of Phage T4 Lysozyme
      Alber, T.,Dao-Pin, S.,Wilson, K.,Wozniak, J.A.,Cook, S.P.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1987) Nature 330: 41
    • Crystallographic Determination of the Mode of Binding of Oligosaccharides to T4 Bacteriophage Lysozyme. Implications for the Mechanism of Catalysis
      Anderson, W.F.,Gruetter, M.G.,Remington, S.J.,Weaver, L.H.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1981) J.Mol.Biol. 147: 523
    • Crystallographic Data for Lysozyme from Bacteriophage T4
      Matthews, B.W.,Dahlquist, F.W.,Maynard, A.Y.
      (1973) J.Mol.Biol. 78: 575


    Organizational Affiliation

    Institute of Molecular Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Eugene, Oregon.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
LYSOZYME
A
164Enterobacteria phage T4Gene Names: E
EC: 3.2.1.17
Find proteins for P00720 (Enterobacteria phage T4)
Go to UniProtKB:  P00720
Small Molecules
Ligands 2 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
CL
Query on CL

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A
CHLORIDE ION
Cl
VEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-M
 Ligand Interaction
BME
Query on BME

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A
BETA-MERCAPTOETHANOL
C2 H6 O S
DGVVWUTYPXICAM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.75 Å
  • Space Group: P 32 2 1
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 60.900α = 90.00
b = 60.900β = 90.00
c = 96.900γ = 120.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
TNTrefinement

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 1991-10-15
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-03-24
    Type: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Type: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.3: 2017-11-29
    Type: Derived calculations, Other