Structural and biological basis of small molecule inhibition of Escherichia coli LpxD acyltransferase essential for lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis.Ma, X., Prathapam, R., Wartchow, C., Chie Leon, B., Ho, C.M., de Vicente, J., Han, W., Li, M., Lu, Y., Ramurthy, S., Shia, S., Steffek, M., Uehara, T.
(2019) Acs Infect Dis. --: --
- PubMed: 31402665
- DOI: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.9b00127
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
LpxD, acyl-ACP-dependent <i>N </i>-acyltransferase, is the third enzyme of lipid A biosynthesis in Gram-negative bacteria. A recent probe-based screen identified several compounds, including 6359-0284 (compound <b>1 </b>), that inhibit the enzymati ...
LpxD, acyl-ACP-dependent N -acyltransferase, is the third enzyme of lipid A biosynthesis in Gram-negative bacteria. A recent probe-based screen identified several compounds, including 6359-0284 (compound 1 ), that inhibit the enzymatic activity of Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) LpxD. Here, we use these inhibitors to chemically validate LpxD as an attractive antibacterial target. We first found that compound 1 was oxidized in solution to the more stable aromatized tetrahydro-pyrazolo-quinolinone compound 1o . From the Escherichia coli strain deficient in efflux, we isolated a mutant that was less susceptible to compound 1o and had an lpxD missense mutation (Gly268Cys), supporting the cellular on-target activity. Using surface plasma resonance, we showed direct binding to E. coli LpxD for compound 1o and other reported LpxD inhibitors in vitro . Furthermore, we determined eight cocrystal structures of E. coli LpxD/inhibitor complexes. These costructures pinpointed the 4'-phosphopantetheine binding site as the common ligand binding hotspot, where hydrogen bonds to Gly269 and/or Gly287 were important for inhibitor binding. In addition, the LpxD/compound 1o costructure rationalized the reduced activity of compound 1o in the LpxD Gly268Cys mutant. Moreover, we obtained the LpxD structure in complex with a previously reported LpxA/LpxD dual targeting peptide inhibitor, RJPXD33, providing structural rationale for the unique dual targeting properties of this peptide. Given that the active site residues of LpxD are conserved in multidrug resistant Enterobacteriaceae, this work paves the way for future LpxD drug discovery efforts combating these Gram-negative pathogens.