6AZA

NMR structure of sea anemone toxin Kappa-actitoxin-Ate1a


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: SOLUTION NMR
  • Conformers Calculated: 200 
  • Conformers Submitted: 20 
  • Selection Criteria: Target function and stereochemical quality judged by Molprobity 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.1 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

PHAB toxins: a unique family of predatory sea anemone toxins evolving via intra-gene concerted evolution defines a new peptide fold.

Madio, B.Peigneur, S.Chin, Y.K.Y.Hamilton, B.R.Henriques, S.T.Smith, J.J.Cristofori-Armstrong, B.Dekan, Z.Boughton, B.A.Alewood, P.F.Tytgat, J.King, G.F.Undheim, E.A.B.

(2018) Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 75: 4511-4524

  • DOI: 10.1007/s00018-018-2897-6

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Sea anemone venoms have long been recognized as a rich source of peptides with interesting pharmacological and structural properties, but they still contain many uncharacterized bioactive compounds. Here we report the discovery, three-dimensional str ...

    Sea anemone venoms have long been recognized as a rich source of peptides with interesting pharmacological and structural properties, but they still contain many uncharacterized bioactive compounds. Here we report the discovery, three-dimensional structure, activity, tissue localization, and putative function of a novel sea anemone peptide toxin that constitutes a new, sixth type of voltage-gated potassium channel (K V ) toxin from sea anemones. Comprised of just 17 residues, κ-actitoxin-Ate1a (Ate1a) is the shortest sea anemone toxin reported to date, and it adopts a novel three-dimensional structure that we have named the Proline-Hinged Asymmetric β-hairpin (PHAB) fold. Mass spectrometry imaging and bioassays suggest that Ate1a serves a primarily predatory function by immobilising prey, and we show this is achieved through inhibition of Shaker-type K V channels. Ate1a is encoded as a multi-domain precursor protein that yields multiple identical mature peptides, which likely evolved by multiple domain duplication events in an actinioidean ancestor. Despite this ancient evolutionary history, the PHAB-encoding gene family exhibits remarkable sequence conservation in the mature peptide domains. We demonstrate that this conservation is likely due to intra-gene concerted evolution, which has to our knowledge not previously been reported for toxin genes. We propose that the concerted evolution of toxin domains provides a hitherto unrecognised way to circumvent the effects of the costly evolutionary arms race considered to drive toxin gene evolution by ensuring efficient secretion of ecologically important predatory toxins.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Centre for Advanced Imaging, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.,Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.,Toxicology and Pharmacology, University of Leuven, Leuven, 3000, Belgium.,Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia. glenn.king@imb.uq.edu.au.,Centre for Advanced Imaging, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia. e.undheim@uq.edu.au.,Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.,Metabolomics Australia, School of Biosciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
ARG-CYS-LYS-THR-CYS-SER-LYS-GLY-ARG-CYS-ARG-PRO-LYS-PRO-ASN-CYS-GLY-NH2
A
18Actinia tenebrosaMutation(s): 0 
Find proteins for P0DM22 (Actinia tenebrosa)
Go to UniProtKB:  P0DM22
Small Molecules
Modified Residues  1 Unique
IDChainsTypeFormula2D DiagramParent
NH2
Query on NH2
A
NON-POLYMERH2 N

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Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: SOLUTION NMR
  • Conformers Calculated: 200 
  • Conformers Submitted: 20 
  • Selection Criteria: Target function and stereochemical quality judged by Molprobity 

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2018-09-12
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2018-11-14
    Type: Data collection, Database references