Crystal structure of human FPPS in complex with an inhibitor THZ93

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.18 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.272 
  • R-Value Work: 0.225 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.227 

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The Mevalonate Pathway Is a Druggable Target for Vaccine Adjuvant Discovery.

Xia, Y.Xie, Y.Yu, Z.Xiao, H.Jiang, G.Zhou, X.Yang, Y.Li, X.Zhao, M.Li, L.Zheng, M.Han, S.Zong, Z.Meng, X.Deng, H.Ye, H.Fa, Y.Wu, H.Oldfield, E.Hu, X.Liu, W.Shi, Y.Zhang, Y.

(2018) Cell 175: 1059-1073.e21

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2018.08.070
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Motivated by the clinical observation that interruption of the mevalonate pathway stimulates immune responses, we hypothesized that this pathway may function as a druggable target for vaccine adjuvant discovery. We found that lipophilic statin drugs and rationally designed bisphosphonates that target three distinct enzymes in the mevalonate pathway have potent adjuvant activities in mice and cynomolgus monkeys. These inhibitors function independently of conventional "danger sensing." Instead, they inhibit the geranylgeranylation of small GTPases, including Rab5 in antigen-presenting cells, resulting in arrested endosomal maturation, prolonged antigen retention, enhanced antigen presentation, and T cell activation. Additionally, inhibiting the mevalonate pathway enhances antigen-specific anti-tumor immunity, inducing both Th1 and cytolytic T cell responses. As demonstrated in multiple mouse cancer models, the mevalonate pathway inhibitors are robust for cancer vaccinations and synergize with anti-PD-1 antibodies. Our research thus defines the mevalonate pathway as a druggable target for vaccine adjuvants and cancer immunotherapies.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, MOE Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing, China; Joint Graduate Program of Peking-Tsinghua-NIBS, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing, China.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase348Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: FDPSFPSKIAA1293
EC: (PDB Primary Data), (PDB Primary Data)
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P14324 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P14324 
Go to UniProtKB:  P14324
PHAROS:  P14324
GTEx:  ENSG00000160752 
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP14324
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.18 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.272 
  • R-Value Work: 0.225 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.227 
  • Space Group: P 41 21 2
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 111.743α = 90
b = 111.743β = 90
c = 66.191γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
HKL-2000data reduction
HKL-2000data scaling

Structure Validation

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Ligand Structure Quality Assessment 

Entry History 

Deposition Data

  • Released Date: 2018-09-26 
  • Deposition Author(s): Li, X.

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2018-09-26
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2019-04-10
    Changes: Data collection, Database references
  • Version 1.2: 2024-03-27
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Derived calculations