Tethering not required: the glucocorticoid receptor binds directly to activator protein-1 recognition motifs to repress inflammatory genes.Weikum, E.R., de Vera, I.M.S., Nwachukwu, J.C., Hudson, W.H., Nettles, K.W., Kojetin, D.J., Ortlund, E.A.
(2017) Nucleic Acids Res 45: 8596-8608
- PubMed: 28591827
- DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkx509
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a ligand-regulated transcription factor that controls the expression of extensive gene networks, driving both up- and down-regulation. GR utilizes multiple DNA-binding-dependent and -independent mechanisms to achieve c ...
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a ligand-regulated transcription factor that controls the expression of extensive gene networks, driving both up- and down-regulation. GR utilizes multiple DNA-binding-dependent and -independent mechanisms to achieve context-specific transcriptional outcomes. The DNA-binding-independent mechanism involves tethering of GR to the pro-inflammatory transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) through protein-protein interactions. This mechanism has served as the predominant model of GR-mediated transrepression of inflammatory genes. However, ChIP-seq data have consistently shown GR to occupy AP-1 response elements (TREs), even in the absence of AP-1. Therefore, the current model is insufficient to explain GR action at these sites. Here, we show that GR regulates a subset of inflammatory genes in a DNA-binding-dependent manner. Using structural biology and biochemical approaches, we show that GR binds directly to TREs via sequence-specific contacts to a GR-binding sequence (GBS) half-site found embedded within the TRE motif. Furthermore, we show that GR-mediated transrepression observed at TRE sites to be DNA-binding-dependent. This represents a paradigm shift in the field, showing that GR uses multiple mechanisms to suppress inflammatory gene expression. This work further expands our understanding of this complex multifaceted transcription factor.
Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.