Crystal structures reveal an elusive functional domain of pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase.Suzuki, T., Miller, C., Guo, L.T., Ho, J.M.L., Bryson, D.I., Wang, Y.S., Liu, D.R., Soll, D.
(2017) Nat. Chem. Biol. 13: 1261-1266
- PubMed: 29035363
- DOI: 10.1038/nchembio.2497
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:  5UD5
- PubMed Abstract:
Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) is a major tool in genetic code expansion using noncanonical amino acids, yet its structure and function are not completely understood. Here we describe the crystal structure of the previously uncharacterized essent ...
Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) is a major tool in genetic code expansion using noncanonical amino acids, yet its structure and function are not completely understood. Here we describe the crystal structure of the previously uncharacterized essential N-terminal domain of this unique enzyme in complex with tRNAPyl. This structure explains why PylRS remains orthogonal in a broad range of organisms, from bacteria to humans. The structure also illustrates why tRNAPyl recognition by PylRS is anticodon independent: the anticodon does not contact the enzyme. Then, using standard microbiological culture equipment, we established a new method for laboratory evolution-a noncontinuous counterpart of the previously developed phage-assisted continuous evolution. With this method, we evolved novel PylRS variants with enhanced activity and amino acid specificity. Finally, we employed an evolved PylRS variant to determine its N-terminal domain structure and show how its mutations improve PylRS activity in the genetic encoding of a noncanonical amino acid.
Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.