Crystal structure of the human galectin-4 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain in complex with lactose

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 1.90 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.199 
  • R-Value Work: 0.155 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.157 

Starting Model: experimental
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Structural characterisation of human galectin-4 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain in complex with glycerol, lactose, 3'-sulfo-lactose, and 2'-fucosyllactose.

Bum-Erdene, K.Leffler, H.Nilsson, U.J.Blanchard, H.

(2016) Sci Rep 6: 20289-20289

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/srep20289
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    5DUU, 5DUV, 5DUW, 5DUX

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Galectin-4 is a tandem-repeat galectin with two distinct carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD). Galectin-4 is expressed mainly in the alimentary tract and is proposed to function as a lipid raft and adherens junction stabilizer by its glycan cross-linking capacity. Galectin-4 plays divergent roles in cancer and inflammatory conditions, either promoting or inhibiting each disease progression, depending on the specific pathological condition. The study of galectin-4's ligand-binding profile may help decipher its roles under specific conditions. Here we present the X-ray structures of human galectin-4 N-terminal CRD (galectin-4N) bound to different saccharide ligands. Galectin-4's overall fold and its core interactions to lactose are similar to other galectin CRDs. Galectin-4N recognises the sulfate cap of 3'-sulfated glycans by a weak interaction through Arg45 and two water-mediated hydrogen bonds via Trp84 and Asn49. When galectin-4N interacts with the H-antigen mimic, 2'-fucosyllactose, an interaction is formed between the ring oxygen of fucose and Arg45. The extended binding site of galectin-4N may not be well suited to the A/B-antigen determinants, α-GalNAc/α-Gal, specifically due to clashes with residue Phe47. Overall, galectin-4N favours sulfated glycans whilst galectin-4C prefers blood group determinants. However, the two CRDs of galectin-4 can, to a less extent, recognise each other's ligands.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland 4222, Australia.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
A, B, C, D
155Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: LGALS4
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P56470 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P56470 
Go to UniProtKB:  P56470
GTEx:  ENSG00000171747 
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP56470
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence


Entity ID: 2
MoleculeChains Length2D Diagram Glycosylation3D Interactions
E, F, G, H
Glycosylation Resources
GlyTouCan:  G84224TW
GlyCosmos:  G84224TW
GlyGen:  G84224TW
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 1.90 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.199 
  • R-Value Work: 0.155 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.157 
  • Space Group: P 1 21 1
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 62.92α = 90
b = 64.75β = 91.26
c = 64.47γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
Aimlessdata scaling
PDB_EXTRACTdata extraction
MOSFLMdata reduction

Structure Validation

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Entry History & Funding Information

Deposition Data

Funding OrganizationLocationGrant Number
Cancer Council QueenslandAustralia1043716

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2016-02-17
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 2.0: 2020-07-29
    Type: Remediation
    Reason: Carbohydrate remediation
    Changes: Atomic model, Data collection, Derived calculations, Non-polymer description, Structure summary
  • Version 2.1: 2023-09-27
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Refinement description, Structure summary