5DSM

Structure of CO2 released holo-form of human carbonic anhydrase II with 25 min warming


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.3 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.140 
  • R-Value Work: 0.112 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.1 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

Tracking solvent and protein movement during CO2 release in carbonic anhydrase II crystals

Kim, C.U.Song, H.Avvaru, B.S.Gruner, S.M.Park, S.McKenna, R.

(2016) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113: 5257-5262

  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1520786113
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
  • Also Cited By: 5YUK, 5YUJ, 5YUI

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Carbonic anhydrases are mostly zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration/dehydration of CO2/HCO3 (-) Previously, the X-ray crystal structures of CO2-bound holo (zinc-bound) and apo (zinc-free) human carbonic anhydrase IIs (hCA IIs) w ...

    Carbonic anhydrases are mostly zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration/dehydration of CO2/HCO3 (-) Previously, the X-ray crystal structures of CO2-bound holo (zinc-bound) and apo (zinc-free) human carbonic anhydrase IIs (hCA IIs) were captured at high resolution. Here, we present sequential timeframe structures of holo- [T = 0 s (CO2-bound), 50 s, 3 min, 10 min, 25 min, and 1 h] and apo-hCA IIs [T = 0 s, 50 s, 3 min, and 10 min] during the "slow" release of CO2 Two active site waters, WDW (deep water) and WDW' (this study), replace the vacated space created on CO2 release, and another water, WI (intermediate water), is seen to translocate to the proton wire position W1. In addition, on the rim of the active site pocket, a water W2' (this study), in close proximity to residue His64 and W2, gradually exits the active site, whereas His64 concurrently rotates from pointing away ("out") to pointing toward ("in") active site rotameric conformation. This study provides for the first time, to our knowledge, structural "snapshots" of hCA II intermediate states during the formation of the His64-mediated proton wire that is induced as CO2 is released. Comparison of the holo- and apo-hCA II structures shows that the solvent network rearrangements require the presence of the zinc ion.


    Organizational Affiliation

    High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, China.,National Laboratory of Macromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. lingzhu@ibp.ac.cn.,Genetics, Genomics and Bioinformatics Program, The Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.,Protein Structure Laboratory, The University of Kansas, Kansas.,Laboratoire de Biochimie Métabolomique et Protéomique, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Faculté de Médecine Paris Descartes, Paris 75015, France.,College of Life Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, People's Republic of China. Electronic address: zhouwh@nankai.edu.cn.,Division of Pharmaceutical Biology, Department of Biology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany. Electronic address: wolfgang.kreis@fau.de.,Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UFR des Sciences Fondamentales et Biomédicales, UMR-S 1124, Centre Interdisciplinaire Chimie Biologie-Paris, 45, rue des Saints Pères, Paris 75006, France; INSERM, UMR-S 1124, Paris 75006, France; Laboratoire de Biochimie Métabolomique et Protéomique, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Faculté de Médecine Paris Descartes, Paris 75015, France.,Department of Biophysics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191, China; Institute of Systems Biomedicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191, China.,Center for Biological Imaging, CAS Center for Excellence in Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. xzzhang@ibp.ac.cn.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610; cukim@unist.ac.kr psy@ssu.ac.kr rmckenna@ufl.edu.,State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center of Genetics and Development, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.,Institut de Biologie Intégrative de la Cellule (I2BC), IBITECS, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.,Department of Biochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Max-Planck-Ring 5, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.,IBG-1: Biotechnology , Forschungszentrum Jülich , D-52425 Jülich , Germany.,Institute for Structural Biology, Drug Discovery and Development, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23219.,Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Ikenobe 2393, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa, 761-0795, Japan.,Chemical Biology Program , Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center , New York , New York 10065 , United States.,Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5324.,iBET , Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica , Apartado 12 , 2781-901 Oeiras , Portugal.,Department of Chemistry, University of California, 1102 Natural Sciences II, Irvine, CA 92697-2025, USA.,Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, 30322, USA.,Carthage University, Laboratory of Organic and Analytical Chemistry (ISEFC), Tunis, Tunisia.,Division of Pharmaceutical Biology, Department of Biology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Matsudo, Chiba, 271-8587, Japan.,Alzheimer's Research (UK) Oxford Drug Discovery Institute, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, NDM Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7FZ, UK.,Beijing Productivity Center, Major Project Department, Beijing, 100088, China.,Biomolecular Interaction Centre and School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.,Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 1G Royal Parade, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3052, Australia.,Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute , National Institutes of Health , Bethesda , Maryland 20892 , United States.,National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale, School of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.,Institute of Physical Science and Information Technology, Institute of Health Sciences, Anhui University, Hefei, 230601, China.,Peptide Chemistry Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, London, NW1 1AT, UK.,CeSI-MeT, "G. d'Annunzio" University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.,School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto 1-12-4, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan; Department of Parasitology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Abeno-ku, Asahimachi 1-4-3, Osaka 545-8585, Japan.,Roche Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development, Chemical Biology, Roche Innovation Center Basel, Basel, Switzerland.,Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, 94305, CA, USA.,Plant Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology & Biotechnology, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064.,Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544.,Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA.,Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Saitama, Japan. gkurisu@protein.osaka-u.ac.jp.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Janelia Research Campus, 19700 Helix Drive, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, USA.,Daiichi Sankyo RD Novare Co., Ltd., 1-16-13, Kitakasai, Edogawa-ku, Tokyo 134-8630, Japan.,From the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B4, Canada and.,Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.,College of Life Sciences, College of Pharmacy, State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, People's Republic of China.,Department of Organismic Interactions, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Marburg, Germany.,Department of Integrated Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, Florida, 33458, USA.,Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5324.,Department of Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, 27710, NC, USA. seok-yong.lee@duke.edu.,Graduate School of Medical Life Science, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan.,Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, 30602, USA. jprose@uga.edu.,Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603, Japan.,R&D Division, Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., 1-2-58 Hiromachi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-8710, Japan. Electronic address: shinozuka.tsuyoshi.s5@daiichisankyo.co.jp.,Institut de Biologie Structurale, Université Grenoble Alpes, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)-Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique (CEA) (UMR 5075), F-38054, Grenoble, France; Institut Laue Langevin, 71, avenue des Martyrs - CS 20156, 38042, Grenoble cedex 9, France.,KWS SAAT SE, Einbeck, Germany.,Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna Biocenter (VBC), Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9, 1030 Vienna, Austria.,College of Physics and Information Science, Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Key Laboratory of Low-dimensional Quantum Structures, and Quantum Control of the Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081, China.,Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.,Institut für Biochemie, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Strasse 4, 17487, Greifswald, Germany.,Discovery and Developmental Therapeutics, Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, Georgia, 30322, USA.,Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Systems Biology, ETH Zürich, 8093, Zürich, Switzerland.,Molecular Biophysics Group, Institute of Integrative Biology, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, England.,Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch, France.,Biotechnology Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, 56212, Republic of Korea; Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Interdisciplinary Program for Bioenergy and Biomaterials, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 61186, Republic of Korea.,State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Science Research Center, 333 Haike Road, Shanghai 201210, China.,From the Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, CB2 1QW, United Kingdom mw240@cam.ac.uk.,The University of Texas - RGV, Edinburg, Texas 78541.,Structural Genomics Consortium & Botnar Research Centre, University of Oxford, Windmill Road, Oxford, OX3 7LD, UK.,Department of Diagnostic Medicine & Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Kansas.,Department of Structural Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100, Rehovot, Israel.,Belfer Center for Applied Cancer Science, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.,Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UFR des Sciences Fondamentales et Biomédicales, UMR-S 1124, Centre Interdisciplinaire Chimie Biologie-Paris, 45, rue des Saints Pères, Paris 75006, France; INSERM, UMR-S 1124, Paris 75006, France; Université Paris Descartes, Structural and Molecular Analysis Platform, Paris 75006, France. Electronic address: pierre.nioche@gmail.com.,Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell (I2BC), CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91198, Gif-sur-Yvette cedex, France.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.,Graduate School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.,Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78245, USA.,Department of Immunology, Genetics, and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, SE-751 85, Sweden.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden, Germany.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, United States.,State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, Chengdu, 610041, China. ouyangliang@scu.edu.cn.,Sanofi R&D, Translational Science Unit, Chilly-Mazarin 91385, France. Electronic address: franck.auge@sanofi.com.,Witebsky Center for Microbial Pathogenesis and Immunology, The Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.,School of Chemical, Materials and Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602, USA.,Philipps-University Marburg, Center for Synthetic Microbiology (SYNMIKRO) and Department of Chemistry, Marburg, Germany. gert.bange@synmikro.uni-marburg.de.,Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro 6, I-40126, Bologna, Italy.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biosciences, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.,X-ray Crystallography Core Laboratory, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229.,Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5324.,Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. Electronic address: kehu@indiana.edu.,Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana.,Department of Biomolecular Science, Faculty of Science, Toho University, Funabashi, Chiba, Japan.,Medical Research Institute , Tokyo Medical and Dental University , Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 , Japan.,Section on Biological Chemistry, NIDCR, National Institutes of Health, 30 Convent Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892-4370, USA.,Multidiscipline Research Center, Institute of High Energy Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.,f Department of Chemical Sciences , Tata Institute of Fundamental Research , Colaba , Mumbai , India.,Department of Biochemistry , University of Bayreuth , 95447 Bayreuth , Germany.,Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.,National Synchrotron Light Source-II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973, USA.,IGF, University of Montpellier, CNRS, INSERM, Montpellier, 34094, France.,Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale CAS Center for Excellence in Biomacromolecules, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Life Sciences, and School of Life Sciences , University of Science and Technology of China , 96 Jinzhai Road , Hefei , Anhui 230026 , China.,g Indian Institute of Science Education and Research , Berhampur , Odisha , India.,CBS, University of Montpellier, CNRS, INSERM, Montpellier, 34090, France.,CNR Istituto di Biostrutture e Bioimmagini, Via Mezzocannone 16, I-80134 Napoli, Italy. Electronic address: luigi.vitagliano@unina.it.,ITQB NOVA, Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier , Universidade Nova de Lisboa , Av. da República , 2780-157 Oeiras , Portugal.,Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.,Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.,The Microbiology Group, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 35, 223 62 Lund, Sweden; Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 12316 Cairo, Egypt.,Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, INSA Rouen, CNRS, COBRA (UMR 6014), 76000, Rouen, France. Electronic address: pierre-yves.renard@univ-rouen.fr.,IGF, University of Montpellier, CNRS, INSERM, Montpellier, 34094, France. sebastien.granier@igf.cnrs.fr.,Department of Applied Biology, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Matsugasaki, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan. Electronic address: tshiba@kit.ac.jp.,Technology Center for Protein Sciences, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Protein Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.,Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Pharmacy, Department of Excellence 2018-2020, University of Siena, via Aldo Moro, 2, 53110 Siena, Italy; Magnetic Resonance Center CERM, University of Florence, via Luigi Sacconi, 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI, Italy. Electronic address: stefano.mangani@unisi.it.,Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.,3Department of Functional Bioscience, Section of Infection Biology, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka, 814-0175 Japan.,Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.,Department of Structural Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, United States.,Department of Enzymology, Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology , Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg , 06120 Halle/Saale , Germany.,a Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Pharmacology , New York University School of Medicine , New York , NY , USA.,Institute of Biological Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.,College of Life Sciences, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300071, People's Republic of China.,Lab of Computational Chemistry and Drug Design, Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, 518055, China. dyli@pkusz.edu.cn.,Pancreatic Research Group, South Western Sydney Clinical School , University of New South Wales, and Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research , Liverpool , NSW 2170 , Australia.,Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Quantitative Biosciences Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; J. David Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.,Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease, Seattle, WA 98109.,R&D Division, Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., 1-2-58 Hiromachi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-8710, Japan.,The Norwegian Structural Biology Centre, Department of Chemistry , UiT The Arctic University of Norway , N-9037 Tromsø , Norway.,Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.,Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Hongo 7-3-1, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.,From the Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, CB2 1QW, United Kingdom.,the Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, and.,CNR Istituto di Biostrutture e Bioimmagini, Via Mezzocannone 16, I-80134 Napoli, Italy. Electronic address: luciana.esposito@cnr.it.,Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63105, USA.,Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.,Molecular Interaction Analysis Shared Resource, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.,College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.,Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Pharmacy, Department of Excellence 2018-2020, University of Siena, via Aldo Moro, 2, 53110 Siena, Italy. Electronic address: flavio.dipisa@unisi.it.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular biology, Vilnius University Joint Life Sciences Center, Vilnius, Lithuania.,State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Science Research Center, 333 Haike Road, Shanghai 201210, China. Electronic address: rgzhang@sibcb.ac.cn.,Key Laboratory of Structural Biology , Chinese Academy of Sciences , Hefei , Anhui 230026 , China.,Philipps-University Marburg, Center for Synthetic Microbiology (SYNMIKRO) and Department of Chemistry, Marburg, Germany.,School of Chemical, Materials and Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602, USA. yajunyan@uga.edu.,Cryo-Electron Microscopy Structural Biology Laboratory, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI 49503.,Protein Crystallography, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute (GBB), University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747AG Groningen, The Netherlands.,From the Departments of Biological Sciences and jfh21@columbia.edu.,Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address: carette@stanford.edu.,Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Quantitative Biosciences Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; J. David Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address: nevan.krogan@ucsf.edu.,Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich, Munich, Germany.,Institute of Molecular Biology and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA.,Department of Applied Biology, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Matsugasaki, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan; Department of Biomedical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Hongo 7-3-1, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan; Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 2222, Nigeria.,Department of Structural Biology, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. Electronic address: koth.christopher@gene.com.,Laboratory of Applied Structural Biology, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan.,2Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Graduate School, Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 812-8581 Japan.,Department of Physical Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan khara@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp hiranot@riken.jp.,Biotechnology Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, 56212, Republic of Korea; Department of Radiation Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 34113, Republic of Korea.,Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712.,Laboratory of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, The Rockefeller University, New York, USA. lencash@mail.rockefeller.edu.,Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, 63104, USA.,Department of Microbiology and Oral Infection, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Nagasaki, 852-8588, Japan.,Departments of Structural Biology and Microbiology & Immunology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, 94305, CA, USA.,Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.,Department of Computational Science, Graduate School of System Informatics, Kobe University, 1-1, Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501, Japan.,Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics, Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH, 44106-4988, USA.,Department of Biochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Max-Planck-Ring 5, 72076 Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address: eugene.valkov@tuebingen.mpg.de.,NEUROFARBA, University of Florence, v.le Pieraccini, 50, 50134 Firenze, Italy.,Microbial Sciences Institute, Yale University, West Haven, CT 06516, USA.,State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China.,UCIBIO, Departamento de Ciências da Vida, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal.,School of Systems Biomedical Science, Soongsil University, Seoul 06978, Republic of Korea; cukim@unist.ac.kr psy@ssu.ac.kr rmckenna@ufl.edu.,Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana. buchananse@lilly.com.,Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology, Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences and School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. shi-lab@tsinghua.edu.cn.,The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Hamburg, Germany.,Astbury Centre for Structural and Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, England.,Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, San Diego, California 92121, USA.,Department of Structural Biochemistry, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology, Dortmund, Germany.,Institute of Molecular Enzyme Technology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf , Forschungszentrum Jülich , D-52425 Jülich , Germany.,Gene Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.,Guangzhou Henovcom Biosciences Inc., Guangzhou 510530, China.,Frontier Institute for Biomolecular Engineering Research (FIBER), Konan University, 7-1-20 Minatojima-Minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0047, Japan.,SUSTech Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518055, China. dyli@pkusz.edu.cn.,Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 1G Royal Parade, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3052, Australia; Department of Medical Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia. Electronic address: adams@wehi.edu.au.,Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Microbiology of Human Pathogens Unit, Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras, Portugal. lencash@mail.rockefeller.edu.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032.,School of Biological Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA.,Faculty of Biology, Philipps-University, Marburg, Germany.,Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, 530A Steinhaus Hall, Irvine, CA 92697-3900, USA.,Apoptosis and Proliferation Control Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, London, NW1 1AT, UK. nic.tapon@crick.ac.uk.,Department of Macromolecular Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka, Japan.,Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, Illinois, 60611, USA.,Institut de Chimie Organique et Analytique, Université d'Orléans, UMR CNRS 7311, rue de Chartres, BP 6759, 45067, Orléans Cedex 2, France.,Department of Microbiology and Immunology , University of Otago , Otago 9016 , New Zealand.,the State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530, China.,Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544; jtgroves@princeton.edu.,1Division of Structural Biology, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 812-8582 Japan.,6Present Address: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, 1000 Bangladesh.,Laboratorio de Estudios Cristalográficos, Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, Avenida de las Palmeras 4, 18100, Armilla, Granada, Spain.,Medicines Research Centre, Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2NY, United Kingdom.,Lowe Center for Thoracic Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.,State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, China.,Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA.,Division of Immune Regulation, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology (LJI), 9420 Athena Circle, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA.,School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto 1-12-4, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan; Department of Host-Defense Biochemistry, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Nagasaki University, Sakamoto 1-12-4, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan; Department of Biomedical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Hongo 7-3-1, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. Electronic address: danielken@nagasaki-u.ac.jp.,Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232-0146.,Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, SIGMA Clermont, ICCF, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France. Electronic address: pascale.moreau@uca.fr.,Magnetic Resonance Center CERM, University of Florence, via Luigi Sacconi, 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI, Italy. Electronic address: camilla.rosa@meyer.it.,Chromosome Dynamics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan.,Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.,Bavarian NMR Center at the Department of Chemistry and Institute for Advanced Study, Technical University of Munich, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, 85747, Garching, Germany.,Medical Research Center, The People's Hospital of Longhua, Shenzhen, 518109, China.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.,Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, INSA Rouen, CNRS, COBRA (UMR 6014), 76000, Rouen, France. Electronic address: ludovic.jean@univ-rouen.fr.,Division of Structural Biology, The Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. ren@strubi.ox.ac.uk.,Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA. pdk7@case.edu.,Diamond Light Source, Didcot, United Kingdom.,Structural Biology - Science Technology Platform, The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, London, NW1 1AT, UK.,Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City, Haifa 32000, Israel.,Developmental Glycobiology Section, NIDCR, National Institutes of Health, 30 Convent Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892-4370, USA. Kelly.Tenhagen@nih.gov.,School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Bristol, UK.,Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, 30322, USA. eortlun@emory.edu.,California Nano Systems Institute, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA. hong.zhou@ucla.edu.,Department of Structural Biology, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. Electronic address: payandeh.jian@gene.com.,IGF, University of Montpellier, CNRS, INSERM, Montpellier, 34094, France. cedric.leyrat@igf.cnrs.fr.,Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA.,Structural Genomics Consortium & Target Discovery Institute, University of Oxford, NDMRB, Old Road Campus, Oxford, OX3 7DQ &, OX3 7FZ, UK.,Department of Neuroscience, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. Electronic address: hackos.david@gene.com.,Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address: timothy.haystead@duke.edu.,Multidiscipline Research Center, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.,Department of Bioscience, School of Agriculture, Tokai University, 9-1-1 Toroku, Higashi-ku, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, 862-8652, Japan. kyoneda@agri.u-tokai.ac.jp.,From the School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China.,Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Photon Science, Notkestrasse 85, 22607, Hamburg, Germany.,Department of Chemistry, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 0B8, Canada; clarkn@uthscsa.edu fitzpatrickp@uthscsa.edu masad.damha@mcgill.ca pjh@biochem.uthscsa.edu.,From the State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Center for Protein Science Shanghai, Shanghai Science Research Center, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Andrology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, huangy@sibcb.ac.cn.,Immuno-oncology Biology, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543.,Merck & Co., Inc., 33 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States.,Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Večna pot 113, p. p. 537, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.,Department of Natural Product Biochemistry, Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology , Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg , 06120 Halle/Saale , Germany.,Department of Biochemistry , Virginia Tech , Blacksburg , Virginia 24061 , United States.,Department of Chemistry, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 0B8, Canada.,Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037.,National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, CAS Center for Excellence in Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. meili@ibp.ac.cn.,Division of Immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa jeffrey.dorfman@uct.ac.za.,Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, School of Life Sciences, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China.,Department of Structural Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA; Department of Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA. Electronic address: tudor.moldoveanu@stjude.org.,Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA.,Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, UK.,From the Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 and saad@uab.edu.,Slovenian NMR Centre, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, Ljubljana, SI-1000, Slovenia.,Diabetes Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114.,Departments of Biological Chemistry and Chemistry and Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, UCLA-DOE Institute, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.,National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Chinese Academy of Sciences Center for Excellence in Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.,Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.,Minnesota NMR Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.,Department of Biophysics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.,Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.,PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Japan.,Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, 310051, China. yjzhang@cdc.zj.cn.,Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.,Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan.,Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.,Division of Structural Biology, The Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.,IMCA-CAT, Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute, APS Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois.,Laboratory of Chemistry and Cell Biology , The Rockefeller University , New York , New York 10065 , United States.,A. B. Hancock Jr. Memorial Laboratory for Cancer Research, Departments of Chemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232-0146.,West China Hospital Emergency Department (WCHED), State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.,Biotechnology Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, 56212, Republic of Korea; Department of Radiation Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 34113, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: saylim@kaeri.re.kr.,Division of Structural Biology, The Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. dave@strubi.ox.ac.uk.,Infection and Immunity Program and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia. julian.vivian@monash.edu.,Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA; Quantitative Biosciences Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; J. David Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.,Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Translational Photosynthesis, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.,Department of Microbiology & Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 1 Rue Michel-Servet, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address: dominique.soldati-favre@unige.ch.,GlaxoSmithKline, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2NY, United Kingdom.,Core Facility for Protein Production and X-ray Structural Analysis, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.,the Department of Biochemistry, McGill Centre for Structural Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 0B1, Canada kalle.gehring@mcgill.ca.,Institute of Infection and Immunity, Cardiff University, UK.,Structural Biology & Bio-Informatics Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032, India. Electronic address: jayati@iicb.res.in.,Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.,Developmental Glycobiology Section, NIDCR, National Institutes of Health, 30 Convent Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892-4370, USA.,A. B. Hancock Jr. Memorial Laboratory for Cancer Research, Departments of Chemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232-0146 larry.marnett@vanderbilt.edu.,a Center for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research , Gopanpally , Hyderabad , India.,Department of Veterans Affairs, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, TX 78229.,Department of Biochemical and Cellular Pharmacology, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. Electronic address: li.tianbo@gene.com.,Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.,Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology, Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences and School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.,Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. martin.ott@dbb.su.se.,Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Duke University and Durham VA Medical Centers, Durham, NC 27710, USA.,Department of Bioscience, School of Agriculture, Tokai University, 9-1-1 Toroku, Higashi-ku, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, 862-8652, Japan.,International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Cape Town, South Africa.,Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232-0146.,Institute for Protein Design, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. jaf18@uw.edu dabaker@uw.edu.,State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, Chengdu, 610041, China. zhanglanx_9@126.com.,Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. sscchang@medigen.com.tw.,Lab of Computational Chemistry and Drug Design, Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, 518055, China.,Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA.,Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.,Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università degli Studi di Napoli "Federico II", Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli, Italy.,Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address: eortlun@emory.edu.,Northeastern Collaborative Access Team, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.,Microbial Physiology, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute (GBB), University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747AG Groningen, The Netherlands.,International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center and the Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037.,Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.,Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences and Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC), Max-von-Laue-Str. 15, 60438, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.,From the Department of Chemistry, California State University, Fresno, California 93740.,Department of Chemistry, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZD, England.,Key Laboratory of Structural Biology, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.,The Microbiology Group, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 35, 223 62 Lund, Sweden. Electronic address: claes.von_wachenfeldt@biol.lu.se.,Institute for Protein Design, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.,National Laboratory of Macromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, China.,Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Research Laboratories, Avenida de la Industria, Alcobendas, Spain.,Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA.,Department of Biotechnology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603, Japan.,Department of Biochemistry and Structural Biology, Lund University, PO Box 124, 221 00 Lund, Sweden.,Graduate School of Frontiers of Innovative Research in Science and Technology (FIRST), Konan University, 7-1-20 Minatojima-Minamimachi, Kobe 650-0047, Japan.,The Microbiology Group, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 35, 223 62 Lund, Sweden; Department of Biochemistry and Structural Biology, Lund University, PO Box 124, 221 00 Lund, Sweden.,Institute of Protein Biochemistry, Ulm University, 89081, Ulm, Germany. matthias.schmidt@uni-ulm.de.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard University, 250 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.,Faculty of Life Sciences, Toyo University, Itakura, Gunma, Japan.,Merck & Co., Inc., 2015 Galloping Hill Road, Kenilworth, New Jersey 07033, United States.,Magnetic Resonance Center CERM, University of Florence, via Luigi Sacconi, 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI, Italy.,Illawarra Health & Medical Research Institute , Wollongong , NSW 2522 , Australia.,Institute of Structural Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany.,Institute of Molecular Physiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany. paulsen@uni-mainz.de.,From the State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Center for Protein Science Shanghai, Shanghai Science Research Center, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Andrology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, lgwu@sibcb.ac.cn.,The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, UK.,Cellular and Molecular Microbiology, Department of Molecular Biology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Gosselies, Belgium. agarciap@ulb.ac.be.,Systems and Structural Biology Center, RIKEN, Tsurumi, Suehiro 1-7-22, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan.,From the State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Center for Protein Science Shanghai, Shanghai Science Research Center, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Andrology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences.,Molecular Biology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, NY 10065, USA.,Molecular Biology of Archaea, Institute of Biology II, University of Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg, Germany.,Drug Discovery Program, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, ON, Canada.,Department of Medical Chemistry, Institute of Pharmacy , Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg , 06120 Halle/Saale , Germany.,Sinovac Biotech Co., Ltd, Beijing, 100085, China.,Tri-Institutional PhD Program in Chemical Biology , Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center , New York , New York 10065 , United States.,Tri-Institutional PhD Training Program in Chemical Biology, Weill Cornell Medicine, Rockefeller University, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA.,Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Hamburg, Laboratory of Structural Biology of Infection and Inflammation, Hamburg, Germany.,d CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory , Pune , India.,Drug Discovery Unit, Wellcome Centre for Anti-Infectives Research, Division of Biological Chemistry and Drug Discovery, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, United Kingdom; k.read@dundee.ac.uk maria.m.marco@gsk.com p.g.wyatt@dundee.ac.uk.,Institute of Immunology, University Medical Center, Hamburg, Germany.,CNR Istituto di Biostrutture e Bioimmagini, Via Mezzocannone 16, I-80134 Napoli, Italy.,Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka Institute of Technology, 5-16-1 Ohmiya, Asahi-ku, Osaka, 535-8585, Japan.,State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Science Research Center, 333 Haike Road, Shanghai 201210, China. Electronic address: jinwei.zhu@sibcb.ac.cn.,Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, SE-75123, Uppsala, Sweden.,From the Departments of Biological Sciences and.,State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center of Genetics and Development, Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.,Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, United States.,School of Life Sciences, Westlake University, 18 Shilongshan Road, Xihu District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310024, China. shi-lab@tsinghua.edu.cn.,Molecular Discovery Technologies, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543.,Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University Medical Center, Hamburg, Germany.,Department of Chemistry, Franklin and Marshall College, PO Box 3003, Lancaster, PA 17604, USA.,Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, 92037, CA, USA.,Cryo-Electron Microscopy Structural Biology Laboratory, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI 49503; cnathan@med.cornell.edu Huilin.Li@vai.org.,Biomedical Center and Center for Integrated Protein Science, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, 82152 Martinsried, Germany.,Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. Electronic address: cbasler@gsu.edu.,Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS, GKVK Campus, Bellary Road, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065, India.,Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298; jf2192@cumc.columbia.edu wah2@cumc.columbia.edu yguo4@vcu.edu.,Multidiscipline Research Center, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. Electronic address: liuqsh@ihep.ac.cn.,Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.,the Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biocomputing, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530, China, and.,Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, 30602, USA.,Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, 41522, Ismailia, Egypt.,Oxford Protein Production Facility UK, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire, UK.,Science for Life Laboratory, Stockholm University, Solna, Sweden.,Gregor Mendel Institute (GMI), Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna Biocenter (VBC), Vienna, Austria.,Oxford Protein Production Facility, Research Complex at Harwell, Didcot, United Kingdom.,Department of Optoelectronic Information, School of Science, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, China.,Division of Immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.,Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Qld, 4072, Australia.,From the RNA Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA.,Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.,Sorbonne Université, CNRS USR 3151, Protein Phosphorylation & Human Diseases, Station Biologique de Roscoff, CS 90074, Roscoff Cedex, F-29688, France.,Infection and Immunity Program and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia.,Institute of Complex Systems, ICS-6: Structural Biochemistry, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany.,Roche Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development, Large Molecule Research, Roche Innovation Center Munich, Penzberg, Germany.,Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Advanced Molecular Imaging, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia.,Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.,Department of Structural Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA; Department of Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.,Cleveland Center for Membrane and Structural Biology, Case Western Reserve University, 1819 E 101st Street, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA. pdk7@case.edu.,National Laboratory of Macromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.,Biotechnology Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, 56212, Republic of Korea; Department of Radiation Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 34113, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: mkkim@kaeri.re.kr.,Departments of Biological Chemistry and Chemistry and Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, UCLA-DOE Institute, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA. david@mbi.ucla.edu.,b Departments of Neuroscience & Physiology, & Psychiatry , New York University School of Medicine , New York , NY , USA.,Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142.,Structural Biology & Bio-Informatics Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032, India.,Apoptosis and Proliferation Control Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, London, NW1 1AT, UK.,BioMS - Swedish National Infrastructure for Biological Mass Spectrometry, Lund University, BMC D1330, 221 84 Lund, Sweden.,Department of Biomedical Sciences , Nihon University School of Medicine , Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610 , Japan.,Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK.,Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biology, 455 Main Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.,Microbial Physiology, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute (GBB), University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747AG Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: a.brandt@rug.nl.,Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Chemistry Research Laboratory, Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TA, UK.,Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032.,FH Campus Wien, Vienna, Austria.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84112.,Structural Biology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, NY 10065, USA.,State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, Chengdu, 610041, China.,Department of Science and Innovation, Medigen Biotech Corporation, Taipei, Taiwan.,Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, 720 Cumberland Street, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand.,Program in Metabolism, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142.,Dipartimento di Farmacia-Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Bari "Aldo Moro", via Edoardo Orabona 4, 70125, Bari, Italy.,The ARC Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Perth, 6009, Australia.,Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853; Department of Physics, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 44919, Republic of Korea; cukim@unist.ac.kr psy@ssu.ac.kr rmckenna@ufl.edu.,Center for Vascular and Inflammatory Diseases and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology , University of Maryland School of Medicine , Baltimore , Maryland 21201 , United States.,Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027.,Department of Structural Biochemistry, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology, Dortmund, Germany. stefan.raunser@mpi-dortmund.mpg.de.,Infection and Immunity Program and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia. anthony.purcell@monash.edu.,Department of Biological Science, University of Eldoret, Eldoret, Kenya.,Core Facility for Protein Production and X-ray Structural Analysis, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. ahjwang@gate.sinica.edu.tw.,Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, SE1 9RT London, United Kingdom.,Cellular and Molecular Microbiology, Department of Molecular Biology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Gosselies, Belgium.,Department of Applied Biology, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Matsugasaki, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan.,CERM, University of Florence, via L. Sacconi, 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy.,Institute of Protein Biochemistry, Ulm University, 89081, Ulm, Germany.,Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku, Japan.,Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY 10021; cnathan@med.cornell.edu Huilin.Li@vai.org.,David Jack Centre for R&D, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware SG12 0DP, United Kingdom.,Institute of Systems Biomedicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191, China.,Institute of High Energy Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.,Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 250 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. harrison@crystal.harvard.edu.,the Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5290002, Israel.,Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, University of Arizona, 1041 E. Lowell Street, Biosciences West, 517, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA.,MOE Key Laboratory of Gene Function and Regulation, State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, The Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510006, People's Republic of China.,Department of Science and Innovation, Medigen Biotech Corporation, Taipei, Taiwan. sscchang@medigen.com.tw.,Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Quantitative Biosciences Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; J. David Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Division of Infectious Diseases, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.,Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden. hogbom@dbb.su.se.,Department of Cellular Biochemistry, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany. mhartl@biochem.mpg.de.,Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Advanced Molecular Imaging, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia. julian.vivian@monash.edu.,Department of Biochemistry and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229; clarkn@uthscsa.edu fitzpatrickp@uthscsa.edu masad.damha@mcgill.ca pjh@biochem.uthscsa.edu.,Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, 92037, CA, USA. glander@scripps.edu.,Department of Molecular and Cellular Parasitology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Hongo 2-1-1, Tokyo, 113-8421, Japan.,Department of Chemistry, Wichita State University, Kansas.,Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.,e Department of Biophysics , Panjab University , Chandigarh , India.,Diamond Light Source, Didcot, UK. dave@strubi.ox.ac.uk.,Istituto Tumori IRCCS Giovanni Paolo II, via le Orazio Flacco 65, 70124, Bari, Italy.,Department of Microbiology & Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 1 Rue Michel-Servet, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland.,Departamento de Química Orgánica, Laboratorio de Investigación Ignacio Ribas , Universidad de Santiago de Compostela , 15782 Santiago de Compostela , Spain.,Materials and Structural Analysis, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.,Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298.,Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA.,Institute for Biological and Medical Engineering, Schools of Engineering, Medicine, and Biological Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.,Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6, Canada.,Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, 30322, USA.,Department of Discovery Chemistry, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543.,Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Buchmann Institute for Life Sciences, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, 60438, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.,Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Nagasaki, 852-8588, Japan.,Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM), University of Florence and Consorzio Interuniversitario Risonanze Magnetiche di, Metallo Proteine (CIRMMP), Via L. Sacconi 6, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.,Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden. julia.griese@icm.uu.se.,Alba Synchrotron, carrer de la Llum 2-26, 08290 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. juanhuix@cells.es.,Facility for Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Marburg, Germany.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064; larisa.litovchick@vcuhealth.org srubin@ucsc.edu.,Graduate School of Medicine , University of Wollongong , Wollongong , NSW 2522 , Australia.,Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.,Chromosome Dynamics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan khara@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp hiranot@riken.jp.,Research Service, Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, 10701 East Boulevard, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA. pdk7@case.edu.,Eli Lilly and Company, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois.,Key Laboratory of RNA Biology, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.,Department of Biomolecular Resources, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.,California Nano Systems Institute, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.,Leads Discovery and Optimization, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543.,the State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530, China, liu_jinsong@gibh.ac.cn.,Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515, Japan.,Program in Integrated Molecular Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550, Japan.,UCIBIO, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal.,Institute of Molecular Biology and Pathology, CNR, Rome, Italy.,Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. Electronic address: tatiana.kutateladze@ucdenver.edu.,West China Hospital Emergency Department (WCHED), State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China. lugw@scu.edu.cn.,David Van Andel Advanced Cryo-Electron Microscopy Suite, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI 49503.,Department of Biochemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany. hopfner@genzentrum.lmu.de.,WELBIO, Brussels, Belgium. agarciap@ulb.ac.be.,Division of Hematology, Oncology and Palliative Care and Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298.,Departments of Biochemistry and Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.,UCIBIO, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. tsss@fct.unl.pt.,Department of Structural Biology, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.,Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, INSA Rouen, CNRS, COBRA (UMR 6014), 76000, Rouen, France.,VIB Inflammation Research Center, UGent-VIB Research Building FSVM, Technologiepark 927, 9052, Zwijnaarde (Ghent), Belgium.,From the Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 and.,Department of Biochemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.,Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology, Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences and School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. yancy@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn.,Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA.,Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297, Japan.,School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.,Department of Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.,Macromolecular Crystallography, Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232, Villigen PSI, Switzerland.,Structural and Computational Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) Heidelberg, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.,Beryllium Discovery Corp, Bainbridge Island, WA 98110.,BIOSS Centre for Biological Signalling Studies, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University, West Haven, CT 06516, USA.,Institut de Biologie Structurale, Université Grenoble Alpes, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)-Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique (CEA) (UMR 5075), F-38054, Grenoble, France.,Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, SIGMA Clermont, ICCF, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France.,Institute of Molecular Biology and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA bnolen@uoregon.edu.,State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.,Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK; BioBank, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, P. R. China. Electronic address: s.j.matthews@imperial.ac.uk.,UCB Pharma Ltd, Slough, SL1 3WE, UK.,Biochemistry and Biomedicine, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QG, UK.,Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.,From the RNA Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605 andrei.korostelev@umassmed.edu.,Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, 6100, Rehovot, Israel.,Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK.,Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.,Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK; Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.,Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University, Columbus, United States.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032; jf2192@cumc.columbia.edu wah2@cumc.columbia.edu yguo4@vcu.edu.,Departments of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232-0146.,Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China; Institute of Systems Biomedicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191, China; Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191, China. Electronic address: yinyuxin@hsc.pku.edu.cn.,Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Tottori University, Koyamacho-Minami 4, Tottori 680-8552, Japan.,Institute of Protein Biochemistry, Ulm University, 89081, Ulm, Germany. marcus.faendrich@uni-ulm.de.,Institut für Physikalische Biologie , Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf , D-40225 Düsseldorf , Germany.,the Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794.,Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, United States.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address: rrock@uchicago.edu.,the State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Centre of Genetics and Development, Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Plant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China, and.,National Laboratory of Macromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. xiangxi@ibp.ac.cn.,the Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.,Laboratory for Organic and Bioorganic Synthesis, Department of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S4), 9000, Ghent, Belgium.,Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Microbiology of Human Pathogens Unit, Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras, Portugal.,Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UFR des Sciences Fondamentales et Biomédicales, UMR-S 1124, Centre Interdisciplinaire Chimie Biologie-Paris, 45, rue des Saints Pères, Paris 75006, France; INSERM, UMR-S 1124, Paris 75006, France.,The Philips Institute for Oral Health Research, School of Dentistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA.,Alba Synchrotron, carrer de la Llum 2-26, 08290 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.,Department of Structural Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.,Center for Genomic Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114.,Department of Cellular Biochemistry, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany.,Multidiscipline Research Center, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. Electronic address: shezhun@ihep.ac.cn.,Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.,Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.,Department of Biophysics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Electronic address: tpsingh.aiims@gmail.com.,NanoTemper Technologies GmbH, Floessergasse 4, Munich, 81369, Germany.,Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, 751 24, Uppsala, Sweden. julia.griese@icm.uu.se.,National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, CAS Center for Excellence in Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. xzzhang@ibp.ac.cn.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.,the School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, China.,Gene Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany. hopfner@genzentrum.lmu.de.,Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.,Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Colorado State University , 1870 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1870, United States.,Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, SIGMA Clermont, ICCF, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France; Carthage University, Laboratory of Organic and Analytical Chemistry (ISEFC), Tunis, Tunisia.,Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Martin-Luther-University, 06120, Halle (Saale), Germany.,Department of Structural Biology, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. Electronic address: rohou.alexis@gene.com.,Department of Oncological Sciences, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112.,Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università degli Studi di Napoli "Federico II", Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli, Italy. Electronic address: delia.picone@unina.it.,Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 1G Royal Parade, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3052, Australia; Department of Medical Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia.,Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 250 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.,Department of Biomedical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Hongo 7-3-1, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.,Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853; Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.,Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Gakushuin University, Toshima-ku, Tokyo, 171-8588, Japan.,National Joint Biomedical Engineering Research Centre on Photodynamic Technologies , Fuzhou University , Fujian 350116 , China.,Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, della Vita, della Sostenibilità Ambientale, Università Di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17/A, 43124 Parma, Italy.,GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville Road, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426, United States.,Center for Integrated Protein Science, Munich, Germany. hopfner@genzentrum.lmu.de.,Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.,Department of Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, 27710, NC, USA.,Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences and School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.,Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, China.,Eli Lilly and Company, Alexandria Center for Life Sciences, New York, New York.,Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany.,Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston , Massachusetts 02115 , United States.,Structural Biology - Science Technology Platform, The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, London, NW1 1AT, UK. stephane.mouilleron@crick.ac.uk.,Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA.,Discovery and Developmental Therapeutics, Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, Georgia, 30322, USA. eortlun@emory.edu.,Program in Molecular Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.,Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK; BioBank, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, P. R. China.,Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, "G. d'Annunzio" University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.,Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Pharmacy, Department of Excellence 2018-2020, University of Siena, via Aldo Moro, 2, 53110 Siena, Italy. Electronic address: pozzi4@unisi.it.,Institute of Infection and Immunity, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF14 4XN, UK.,Department of Neuroscience, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.,Magnetic Resonance Center CERM, University of Florence, via Luigi Sacconi, 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI, Italy; Department of Chemistry, Department of Excellence 2018-2020, University of Florence, via della Lastruccia 2, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI, Italy. Electronic address: turano@cerm.unifi.it.,Drug Discovery Unit, Wellcome Centre for Anti-Infectives Research, Division of Biological Chemistry and Drug Discovery, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, United Kingdom.,Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Saitama, Japan.,Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Estructural, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado Postal 70-243, Mexico City, 04510, México.,Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.,Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 91010-92697, USA.,Aix-Marseille Université, AFMB UMR 7257, 13288 Marseille, France.,Department of Biochemical and Cellular Pharmacology, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.,Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.,Institute for Biological and Medical Engineering, Schools of Engineering, Medicine, and Biological Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address: cesar.ramirez@uc.cl.,Institute of Complex Systems, ICS-6: Structural Biochemistry , Forschungszentrum Jülich , D-52425 Jülich , Germany.,Global Health R&D, GlaxoSmithKline, Tres Cantos, 28760, Spain; k.read@dundee.ac.uk maria.m.marco@gsk.com p.g.wyatt@dundee.ac.uk.,Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA. jianglin@ucla.edu.,Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, China. yuanqp@mail.buct.edu.cn.,Cancer Proteomics Mass Spectrometry, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Science for Life Laboratory, Karolinska Institutet, Box 1031, 171 21, Solna, Sweden.,Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA, 20147, USA.,Department of Chemistry , Vanderbilt University , Nashville , Tennessee 37232-0146 , United States.,Division of Hematology, Oncology and Palliative Care and Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298; larisa.litovchick@vcuhealth.org srubin@ucsc.edu.,5Present Address: Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Cairo, 19648 Egypt.,Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037.,Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA fwb4@cdc.gov.,Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008, Russia.,Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Plateforme de Criblage KISSf (Kinase Inhibitor Specialized Screening Facility), Protein Phosphorylation and Human Diseases Unit, Station Biologique, Place Georges Teissier, F-29688, Roscoff, France.,Technology Center for Protein Sciences, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Protein Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.,Scripps Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology & Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037.,Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1042, New Zealand.,Heinrich-Pette-Institute (HPI), Leibniz Institute for Experimental Virology, Research Group Virus Genomics, Hamburg, Germany.,EN→FIST Centre of Excellence, Trg OF 13, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.,Collaboration for joint PhD degree between EMBL and Heidelberg University, Faculty of Biosciences.,Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.,Department of Life Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel.,Eli Lilly and Company, Discovery Chemistry Research and Technologies, Lilly Biotechnology Center, San Diego, California.,Department of Molecular Therapeutics, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, Florida, 33458, USA.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610;,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Electronic address: sotomayor.8@osu.edu.,Medical Research Center, Beijing Key Laboratory of Cardiopulmonary Cerebral Resuscitation, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100020, China.,Department of Chemistry and Physics, Universidad de Almería, 04120, Almería, Spain.,Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, 94305, CA, USA.,Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037; wilson@scripps.edu mlaw@scripps.edu.,National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, CAS Center for Excellence in Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.,Calico Life Sciences LLC, South San Francisco, 94080, CA, USA.,College of Life Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, People's Republic of China.,Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Nagoya Medical Center, Nagoya, Aichi 460-0001, Japan.,School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.,Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.,Department of Molecular Biosciences, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712.,Department of Organismic Interactions, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Marburg, Germany. kahmann@mpi-marburg.mpg.de.,Division of Biotechnology, Department of Biology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany.,Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA; Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.,Department of Biochemistry and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229.,Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia.,Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.,Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, SE1 9RT London, United Kingdom; wes@biochem.utah.edu juan.martin_serrano@kcl.ac.uk.,Disaster Medicine Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.,Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027.,Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.,Laboratory for Medicinal Chemistry, Department of Pharmaceutics (FFW), Ghent University, Ottergemsesteenweg 460, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.,Institute of Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE), Hamburg, Germany.,Departments of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232-0146.,Unité de Biologie Moléculaire du Gène chez les Extrêmophiles, Département de Microbiologie, Institut Pasteur, 75014 Paris, France.,the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599.,Molecular Engineering Ph.D. Program, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.,Integrated Program in Cellular, Molecular, and Biomedical Studies, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032.,New York Structural Biology Center, New York, NY 10027.,the Department of Biochemistry, McGill Centre for Structural Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 0B1, Canada.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.,National Institute for Basic Biology, Aichi, Japan.,Department of Rheumatology & Clinical Immunology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700 RB, Groningen, The Netherlands.,Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, 08010 Barcelona, Spain.,Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UFR des Sciences Fondamentales et Biomédicales, UMR-S 1124, Centre Interdisciplinaire Chimie Biologie-Paris, 45, rue des Saints Pères, Paris 75006, France; INSERM, UMR-S 1124, Paris 75006, France; Université Paris Descartes, Structural and Molecular Analysis Platform, Paris 75006, France.,Plateforme ImPACcell-SFR BIOSIT UMS-CNRS3480 UMS-INSERM018, Université de Rennes1, 35043, Rennes Cedex, France.,State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China.,Institute for chemistry, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor-Str. 2, 12489, Berlin, Germany.,CNRS, AFMB UMR 7257, 13288 Marseille, France.,Present Address: Microbiology and Industrial Irradiation Division, Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Ganakbari, Savar 1207, Dhaka, 1349 Bangladesh.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, United States.,Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address: mackinn@rockefeller.edu.,State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, China. yuanqp@mail.buct.edu.cn.,College of Chemistry, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China. wuyd@pkusz.edu.cn.,Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton 3168, Australia.,Division of Immunology, School of Pathology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.,Roche Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development, Discovery Oncology, Roche Innovation Center Zurich, Schlieren, Switzerland.,Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.,Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna Biocenter (VBC), Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9, 1030 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address: gang.dong@meduniwien.ac.at.,Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biosciences Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.,Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.,c Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology (IBB), Savitribai Phule Pune University , Pune , India.,Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, United States.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.,Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences , UiT The Arctic University of Norway , N-9037 Tromsø , Norway.,School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, England.,From the Department of Chemistry, California State University, Fresno, California 93740 cbrooks@csufresno.edu.,Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Institute of Complex Systems ICS, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich, Germany.,Department of Chemistry & Physics, University of South Carolina Aiken, Aiken, SC 29811.,College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. xzzhang@ibp.ac.cn.,Department of Functional Bioscience, Infection Biology, Fukuoka Dental College, Matsudo, Tamura, Sawara, Fukuoka, 814-0913, Japan.,Institute for Molecular Engineering and Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, 60637, IL, USA.,Bioinformatics Core, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.,National Center for Protein Science, Shanghai, China.,Joint Barcelona Supercomputing Center-Centre for Genomic Regulation-Institute for Research in Biomedicine Research Program in Computational Biology, Barcelona Supercomputing Center, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.,National Laboratory of Macromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. raozh@xtal.tsinghua.edu.cn.,Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Interdisciplinary Program for Bioenergy and Biomaterials, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 61186, Republic of Korea.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84112; wes@biochem.utah.edu juan.martin_serrano@kcl.ac.uk.,Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 2011 Agriculture and Life Sciences Building, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331.,Sanofi R&D, Translational Science Unit, Chilly-Mazarin 91385, France.,Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, 80045​, USA.,Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China.,State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.,Structural Biochemistry - Department of Chemistry, Philipps University Marburg, Hans-Meerwein Strasse 4, 35032 Marburg, Germany.,Laboratorio Nacional de Genómica para la Biodiversidad, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado Postal 629, Irapuato, Guanajuato, CP 36821, México.,Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.,Laboratory of Structural Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. raozh@xtal.tsinghua.edu.cn.,Synthesis and Solid State Pharmaceutical Centre (SSPC), School of Chemistry, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.,Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA. hong.zhou@ucla.edu.,Dipartimento di Chimica "Ugo Schiff", University of Florence, via della Lastruccia, 3-13 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy.,Université de Bordeaux, Institut de Biochimie et Génétique Cellulaires, CNRS UMR 5095, Bordeaux Cedex 33077, France.,Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science , Rikkyo University , Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8501 , Japan.,Lab of Computational Chemistry and Drug Design, Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, 518055, China. wuyd@pkusz.edu.cn.,Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, SIGMA Clermont, ICCF, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France. Electronic address: francis.giraud@uca.fr.,Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.,Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China.,European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Hamburg Outstation, Hamburg, Germany.,Department of Macromolecular Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka, Japan. gkurisu@protein.osaka-u.ac.jp.,Department of Radiochemistry, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543.,Molecular Horizons and School of Chemistry & Molecular Bioscience , University of Wollongong , Wollongong , NSW 2522 , Australia.,Institute of Molecular Physiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany. ejaenick@uni-mainz.de.,b Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland , Brisbane , QLD , Australia.,Skaggs Graduate School of Chemical and Biological Sciences, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, 92037, CA, USA.,Institute of Biological Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. ahjwang@gate.sinica.edu.tw.,State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. nyan@princeton.edu.,Institute for Biological and Medical Engineering, Schools of Engineering, Medicine, and Biological Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Chemical and Bioprocesses Engineering, School of Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address: lparraa@ing.puc.cl.,Global Health R&D, GlaxoSmithKline, Tres Cantos, 28760, Spain.,School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, England.,School of Molecular Sciences, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Perth, 6009, Australia.,Laboratorio de Investigación Bioquímica, Programa Institucional en Biomedicina Molecular ENMyH-Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Guillermo Massieu Helguera No. 239, La Escalera Ticoman, D.F, Mexico City, 07320, Mexico.,Institute of Molecular Physiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany.,Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City, Haifa 32000, Israel. Electronic address: noam@ch.technion.ac.il.,School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto 1-12-4, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan; Department of Biomedical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Hongo 7-3-1, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan; Department of Host-Defense Biochemistry, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Nagasaki University, Sakamoto 1-12-4, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan.,Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY 10021.,Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037; wilson@scripps.edu mlaw@scripps.edu.,Department of Physical Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan.,Department of Virology and Immunology, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78245, USA.,Institute of Biology, Westlake Institute for Advanced Study, Westlake University, 18 Shilongshan Road, Xihu District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310024, China. shi-lab@tsinghua.edu.cn.,School of Systems Biomedical Science, Soongsil University, Seoul 06978, Republic of Korea;,Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan. gkurisu@protein.osaka-u.ac.jp.,Department of Biochemistry, The Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
Carbonic anhydrase 2
A
260Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: CA2
EC: 4.2.1.1
Find proteins for P00918 (Homo sapiens)
Go to Gene View: CA2
Go to UniProtKB:  P00918
Small Molecules
Ligands 2 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
ZN
Query on ZN

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A
ZINC ION
Zn
PTFCDOFLOPIGGS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
GOL
Query on GOL

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A
GLYCEROL
GLYCERIN; PROPANE-1,2,3-TRIOL
C3 H8 O3
PEDCQBHIVMGVHV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.3 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.140 
  • R-Value Work: 0.112 
  • Space Group: P 1 21 1
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 42.211α = 90.00
b = 41.260β = 104.22
c = 72.066γ = 90.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
REFMACrefinement
HKL-2000data scaling
HKL-2000data reduction
REFMACphasing

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2016-05-04
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2018-10-17
    Type: Data collection, Database references, Derived calculations