Tetrahydroindazoles as Interleukin-2 Inducible T-Cell Kinase Inhibitors. Part II. Second-Generation Analogues with Enhanced Potency, Selectivity, and Pharmacodynamic Modulation in Vivo.Burch, J.D., Barrett, K., Chen, Y., DeVoss, J., Eigenbrot, C., Goldsmith, R., Ismaili, M.H., Lau, K., Lin, Z., Ortwine, D.F., Zarrin, A.A., McEwan, P.A., Barker, J.J., Ellebrandt, C., Kordt, D., Stein, D.B., Wang, X., Chen, Y., Hu, B., Xu, X., Yuen, P.W., Zhang, Y., Pei, Z.
(2015) J Med Chem 58: 3806-3816
- PubMed: 25844760
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jm501998m
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
The medicinal chemistry community has directed considerable efforts toward the discovery of selective inhibitors of interleukin-2 inducible T-cell kinase (ITK), given its role in T-cell signaling downstream of the T-cell receptor (TCR) and the implications of this target for inflammatory disorders such as asthma. We have previously disclosed a structure- and property-guided lead optimization effort which resulted in the discovery of a new series of tetrahydroindazole-containing selective ITK inhibitors. Herein we disclose further optimization of this series that resulted in further potency improvements, reduced off-target receptor binding liabilities, and reduced cytotoxicity. Specifically, we have identified a correlation between the basicity of solubilizing elements in the ITK inhibitors and off-target antiproliferative effects, which was exploited to reduce cytotoxicity while maintaining kinase selectivity. Optimized analogues were shown to reduce IL-2 and IL-13 production in vivo following oral or intraperitoneal dosing in mice.
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