Engineered thermostable dimeric cocaine esterase

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.34 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.221 
  • R-Value Work: 0.177 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.179 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report

This is version 1.4 of the entry. See complete history


Rational design, preparation, and characterization of a therapeutic enzyme mutant with improved stability and function for cocaine detoxification.

Fang, L.Chow, K.M.Hou, S.Xue, L.Chen, X.Rodgers, D.W.Zheng, F.Zhan, C.G.

(2014) ACS Chem Biol 9: 1764-1772

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/cb500257s
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Cocaine esterase (CocE) is known as the most efficient natural enzyme for cocaine hydrolysis. The major obstacle to the clinical application of wild-type CocE is the thermoinstability with a half-life of only ∼12 min at 37 °C. The previously designed T172R/G173Q mutant (denoted as enzyme E172-173) with an improved in vitro half-life of ∼6 h at 37 °C is currently in clinical trial Phase II for cocaine overdose treatment. Through molecular modeling and dynamics simulation, we designed and characterized a promising new mutant of E172-173 with extra L196C/I301C mutations (denoted as enzyme E196-301) to produce cross-subunit disulfide bonds that stabilize the dimer structure. The cross-subunit disulfide bonds were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The designed L196C/I301C mutations have not only considerably extended the in vitro half-life at 37 °C to >100 days, but also significantly improved the catalytic efficiency against cocaine by ∼150%. In addition, the thermostable E196-301 can be PEGylated to significantly prolong the residence time in mice. The PEGylated E196-301 can fully protect mice from a lethal dose of cocaine (180 mg/kg, LD100) for at least 3 days, with an average protection time of ∼94h. This is the longest in vivo protection of mice from the lethal dose of cocaine demonstrated within all studies using an exogenous enzyme reported so far. Hence, E196-301 may be developed to become a more valuable therapeutic enzyme for cocaine abuse treatment, and it demonstrates that a general design strategy and protocol to simultaneously improve both the stability and function are feasible for rational protein drug design.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Molecular Modeling and Biopharmaceutical Center and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky , 789 South Limestone Street, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, United States.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Cocaine esterase571Rhodococcus sp. MB1Mutation(s): 4 
Gene Names: cocE
Find proteins for Q9L9D7 (Rhodococcus sp. (strain MB1 Bresler))
Explore Q9L9D7 
Go to UniProtKB:  Q9L9D7
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupQ9L9D7
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.34 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.221 
  • R-Value Work: 0.177 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.179 
  • Space Group: P 65 2 2
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 106.647α = 90
b = 106.647β = 90
c = 220.532γ = 120
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
HKL-2000data scaling

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report

Entry History & Funding Information

Deposition Data

Funding OrganizationLocationGrant Number
National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIH/NIDA)United StatesDA035552
National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIH/NIDA)United StatesDA032910
National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIH/NIDA)United StatesDA013930
National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIH/NIDA)United StatesDA025100
National Institutes of Health/National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIH/NIGMS)United StatesP20GM103486

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2014-07-16
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2014-10-01
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.2: 2017-09-27
    Changes: Author supporting evidence, Derived calculations, Other, Refinement description, Source and taxonomy
  • Version 1.3: 2019-12-11
    Changes: Author supporting evidence
  • Version 1.4: 2023-12-27
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Refinement description