Crystal structure of prethrombin-2 mutant E14eA/D14lA/E18A/S195A

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.40 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.253 
  • R-Value Work: 0.212 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.214 

Starting Model: experimental
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Autoactivation of thrombin precursors.

Pozzi, N.Chen, Z.Zapata, F.Niu, W.Barranco-Medina, S.Pelc, L.A.Di Cera, E.

(2013) J Biol Chem 288: 11601-11610

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M113.451542
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    4H6S, 4H6T, 4HFP, 4RN6

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Trypsin-like proteases are synthesized as inactive zymogens and convert to the mature form upon activation by specific enzymes, often assisted by cofactors. Central to this paradigm is that the zymogen does not convert spontaneously to the mature enzyme, which in turn does not feed back to activate its zymogen form. In the blood, the zymogens prothrombin and prethrombin-2 require the prothrombinase complex to be converted to the mature protease thrombin, which is unable to activate prothrombin or prethrombin-2. Here, we show that replacement of key residues within the activation domain causes these zymogens to spontaneously convert to thrombin. The conversion is started by the zymogen itself, which is capable of binding ligands at the active site, and is abrogated by inactivation of the catalytic residue Ser-195. The product of autoactivation is functionally and structurally equivalent to wild-type thrombin. Zymogen autoactivation is explained by conformational selection, a basic property of the trypsin fold uncovered by structural and rapid kinetics studies. Both the zymogen and protease undergo a pre-existing equilibrium between active and inactive forms. The equilibrium regulates catalytic activity in the protease and has the potential to unleash activity in the zymogen to produce autoactivation. A new strategy emerges for the facile production of enzymes through zymogen autoactivation that is broadly applicable to trypsin-like proteases of biotechnological and clinical interest.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Edward A. Doisy Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63104, USA.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Prothrombin306Homo sapiensMutation(s): 4 
Gene Names: F2
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P00734 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P00734 
Go to UniProtKB:  P00734
GTEx:  ENSG00000180210 
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP00734
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.40 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.253 
  • R-Value Work: 0.212 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.214 
  • Space Group: P 41 21 2
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 135.465α = 90
b = 135.465β = 90
c = 42.468γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
CrystalCleardata collection
HKL-2000data reduction
HKL-2000data scaling

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2013-03-13
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2014-06-11
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.2: 2023-09-20
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Derived calculations, Refinement description