Biosynthesis of the 22nd genetically encoded amino acid pyrrolysine: structure and reaction mechanism of PylC at 1.5A resolution.Quitterer, F., List, A., Beck, P., Bacher, A., Groll, M.
(2012) J.Mol.Biol. 424: 270-282
- PubMed: 22985965
- DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2012.09.007
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
The second step in the biosynthesis of the 22nd genetically encoded amino acid pyrrolysine (Pyl) is catalyzed by PylC that forms the pseudopeptide L-lysine-N(ε)-3R-methyl-D-ornithine. Here, we present six crystal structures of the monomeric active li ...
The second step in the biosynthesis of the 22nd genetically encoded amino acid pyrrolysine (Pyl) is catalyzed by PylC that forms the pseudopeptide L-lysine-N(ε)-3R-methyl-D-ornithine. Here, we present six crystal structures of the monomeric active ligase in complex with substrates, reaction intermediates, and products including ATP, the non-hydrolyzable ATP analogue 5'-adenylyl-β-γ-imidodiphosphate, ADP, D-ornithine (D-Orn), L-lysine (Lys), phosphorylated D-Orn, L-lysine-N(ε)-D-ornithine, inorganic phosphate, carbonate, and Mg(2+). The overall structure of PylC reveals similarities to the superfamily of ATP-grasp enzymes; however, there exist unique structural and functional features for a topological control of successive substrate entry and product release. Furthermore, the presented high-resolution structures provide detailed insights into the reaction mechanism of isopeptide bond formation starting with phosphorylation of D-Orn by transfer of a phosphate moiety from activated ATP. The binding of Lys to the enzyme complex is then followed by an S(N)2 reaction resulting in L-lysine-N(ε)-D-ornithine and inorganic phosphate. Surprisingly, PylC harbors two adenine nucleotides bound at the active site, what has not been observed in any ATP-grasp protein analyzed to date. Whereas one ATP molecule is involved in catalysis, the second adenine nucleotide functions as a selective anchor for the C- and N-terminus of the Lys substrate and is responsible for protein stability as shown by mutagenesis.
Center for Integrated Protein Science at the Department Chemie, Lehrstuhl für Biochemie, Technische Universität München, Garching D-85747, Germany.