4EFX

Highly biologically active insulin with additional disulfide bond


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.98 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.278 
  • R-Value Work: 0.207 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.210 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.0 of the entry. See complete history


Literature

Insulin analog with additional disulfide bond has increased stability and preserved activity.

Vinther, T.N.Norrman, M.Ribel, U.Huus, K.Schlein, M.Steensgaard, D.B.Pedersen, T.A.Pettersson, I.Ludvigsen, S.Kjeldsen, T.Jensen, K.J.Hubalek, F.

(2013) Protein Sci 22: 296-305

  • DOI: 10.1002/pro.2211
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    4EFX

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Insulin is a key hormone controlling glucose homeostasis. All known vertebrate insulin analogs have a classical structure with three 100% conserved disulfide bonds that are essential for structural stability and thus the function of insulin. It might be hypothesized that an additional disulfide bond may enhance insulin structural stability which would be highly desirable in a pharmaceutical use ...

    Insulin is a key hormone controlling glucose homeostasis. All known vertebrate insulin analogs have a classical structure with three 100% conserved disulfide bonds that are essential for structural stability and thus the function of insulin. It might be hypothesized that an additional disulfide bond may enhance insulin structural stability which would be highly desirable in a pharmaceutical use. To address this hypothesis, we designed insulin with an additional interchain disulfide bond in positions A10/B4 based on Cα-Cα distances, solvent exposure, and side-chain orientation in human insulin (HI) structure. This insulin analog had increased affinity for the insulin receptor and apparently augmented glucodynamic potency in a normal rat model compared with HI. Addition of the disulfide bond also resulted in a 34.6°C increase in melting temperature and prevented insulin fibril formation under high physical stress even though the C-terminus of the B-chain thought to be directly involved in fibril formation was not modified. Importantly, this analog was capable of forming hexamer upon Zn addition as typical for wild-type insulin and its crystal structure showed only minor deviations from the classical insulin structure. Furthermore, the additional disulfide bond prevented this insulin analog from adopting the R-state conformation and thus showing that the R-state conformation is not a prerequisite for binding to insulin receptor as previously suggested. In summary, this is the first example of an insulin analog featuring a fourth disulfide bond with increased structural stability and retained function.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Diabetes Research Unit, Novo Nordisk A/S, Novo Nordisk Park, Måløv DK-2760, Denmark.



Macromolecules
Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Insulin AC21Homo sapiensMutation(s): 1 
Gene Names: INS
Find proteins for P01308 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P01308 
Go to UniProtKB:  P01308
NIH Common Fund Data Resources
PHAROS:  P01308
Protein Feature View
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  • Reference Sequence
Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  Structure
Entity ID: 2
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Insulin BD28Homo sapiensMutation(s): 1 
Gene Names: INS
Find proteins for P01308 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P01308 
Go to UniProtKB:  P01308
NIH Common Fund Data Resources
PHAROS:  P01308
Protein Feature View
Expand
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 1 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
ZN
Query on ZN

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
B, D
ZINC ION
Zn
PTFCDOFLOPIGGS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.98 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.278 
  • R-Value Work: 0.207 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.210 
  • Space Group: H 3
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 79.367α = 90
b = 79.367β = 90
c = 34.228γ = 120
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
PHASERphasing
REFMACrefinement
HKL-2000data reduction
SCALEPACKdata scaling

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2013-03-06
    Type: Initial release