Unwinding the Differences of the Mammalian PERIOD Clock Proteins from Crystal Structure to Cellular Function

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.75 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.282 
  • R-Value Work: 0.208 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.214 

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Unwinding the differences of the mammalian PERIOD clock proteins from crystal structure to cellular function.

Kucera, N.Schmalen, I.Hennig, S.Ollinger, R.Strauss, H.M.Grudziecki, A.Wieczorek, C.Kramer, A.Wolf, E.

(2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109: 3311-3316

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1113280109
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    4DJ2, 4DJ3

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    The three PERIOD homologues mPER1, mPER2, and mPER3 constitute central components of the mammalian circadian clock. They contain two PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) domains (PAS-A and PAS-B), which mediate homo- and heterodimeric mPER-mPER interactions as well as interactions with transcription factors and kinases. Here we present crystal structures of PAS domain fragments of mPER1 and mPER3 and compare them with the previously reported mPER2 structure. The structures reveal homodimers, which are mediated by interactions of the PAS-B β-sheet surface including a highly conserved tryptophan (Trp448(mPER1), Trp419(mPER2), Trp359(mPER3)). mPER1 homodimers are additionally stabilized by interactions between the PAS-A domains and mPER3 homodimers by an N-terminal region including a predicted helix-loop-helix motive. We have verified the existence of these homodimer interfaces in solution and inside cells using analytical gel filtration and luciferase complementation assays and quantified their contributions to homodimer stability by analytical ultracentrifugation. We also show by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analyses that destabilization of the PAS-B/tryptophan dimer interface leads to a faster mobility of mPER2 containing complexes in human U2OS cells. Our study reveals structural and quantitative differences between the homodimeric interactions of the three mouse PERIOD homologues, which are likely to contribute to their distinct clock functions.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology, Department of Structural Biology, Otto-Hahn-Strasse 11, 44227 Dortmund, Germany.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Period circadian protein homolog 1
A, B, C, D
320Mus musculusMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: Per1PerRigui
Find proteins for O35973 (Mus musculus)
Explore O35973 
Go to UniProtKB:  O35973
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupO35973
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.75 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.282 
  • R-Value Work: 0.208 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.214 
  • Space Group: P 1 21 1
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 100.34α = 90
b = 56.87β = 90.07
c = 100.95γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
go.comdata collection
XDSdata reduction
XDSdata scaling

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2012-02-29
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2012-03-14
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.2: 2024-02-28
    Changes: Data collection, Database references