X-ray structure of quintuple mutant of human alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase, AGXT_RHEAM

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.30 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.257 
  • R-Value Work: 0.221 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.223 

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The Consensus-Based Approach for Gene/Enzyme Replacement Therapies and Crystallization Strategies: The Case of Human Alanine:Glyoxylate Aminotransferase.

Mesa-Torres, N.Yunta, C.Fabelo-Rosa, I.Gonzalez-Rubio, J.M.Sanchez-Ruiz, J.M.Salido, E.Albert, A.Pey, A.L.

(2014) Biochem J 462: 453

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1042/BJ20140250
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    4CBR, 4CBS

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Protein stability is a fundamental issue in biomedical and biotechnological applications of proteins. Among these applications, gene- and enzyme-replacement strategies are promising approaches to treat inherited diseases that may benefit from protein engineering techniques, even though these beneficial effects have been largely unexplored. In the present study we apply a sequence-alignment statistics procedure (consensus-based approach) to improve the activity and stability of the human AGT (alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase) protein, an enzyme which causes PH1 (primary hyperoxaluria type I) upon mutation. By combining only five consensus mutations, we obtain a variant (AGT-RHEAM) with largely enhanced in vitro thermal and kinetic stability, increased activity, and with no side effects on foldability and peroxisomal targeting in mammalian cells. The structure of AGT-RHEAM reveals changes at the dimer interface and improved electrostatic interactions responsible for increased kinetic stability. Consensus-based variants maintained the overall protein fold, crystallized more easily and improved the expression as soluble proteins in two different systems [AGT and CIPK24 (CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase) SOS2 (salt-overly-sensitive 2)]. Thus the consensus-based approach also emerges as a simple and generic strategy to increase the crystallization success for hard-to-get protein targets as well as to enhance protein stability and function for biomedical applications.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    *Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Av/Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
EC: (PDB Primary Data), (UniProt)
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P21549 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P21549 
Go to UniProtKB:  P21549
PHAROS:  P21549
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP21549
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 1 Unique
IDChains Name / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
Query on PLP

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
C8 H10 N O6 P
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.30 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.257 
  • R-Value Work: 0.221 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.223 
  • Space Group: P 41 21 2
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 89.61α = 90
b = 89.61β = 90
c = 142.38γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
XDSdata reduction
SCALAdata scaling

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2014-07-09
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2014-09-03
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.2: 2019-10-16
    Changes: Data collection, Derived calculations, Experimental preparation, Other