Plug-and-Play Pairing Via Defined Divalent Streptavidins.Fairhead, M., Krndija, D., Lowe, E.D., Howarth, M.
(2014) J Mol Biol 426: 199
- PubMed: 24056174
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2013.09.016
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
4BX5, 4BX6, 4BX7
- PubMed Abstract:
Streptavidin is one of the most important hubs for molecular biology, either multimerizing biomolecules, bridging one molecule to another, or anchoring to a biotinylated surface/nanoparticle. Streptavidin has the advantage of rapid ultra-stable binding to biotin. However, the ability of streptavidin to bind four biotinylated molecules in a heterogeneous manner is often limiting. Here, we present an efficient approach to isolate streptavidin tetramers with two biotin-binding sites in a precise arrangement, cis or trans. We genetically modified specific subunits with negatively charged tags, refolded a mixture of monomers, and used ion-exchange chromatography to resolve tetramers according to the number and orientation of tags. We solved the crystal structures of cis-divalent streptavidin to 1.4Å resolution and trans-divalent streptavidin to 1.6Å resolution, validating the isolation strategy and explaining the behavior of the Dead streptavidin variant. cis- and trans-divalent streptavidins retained tetravalent streptavidin's high thermostability and low off-rate. These defined divalent streptavidins enabled us to uncover how streptavidin binding depends on the nature of the biotin ligand. Biotinylated DNA showed strong negative cooperativity of binding to cis-divalent but not trans-divalent streptavidin. A small biotinylated protein bound readily to cis and trans binding sites. We also solved the structure of trans-divalent streptavidin bound to biotin-4-fluorescein, showing how one ligand obstructs binding to an adjacent biotin-binding site. Using a hexaglutamate tag proved a more powerful way to isolate monovalent streptavidin, for ultra-stable labeling without undesired clustering. These forms of streptavidin allow this key hub to be used with a new level of precision, for homogeneous molecular assembly.
Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK.