Activator-Bound Structure of Human Pyruvate Kinase M2

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 1.95 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.262 
  • R-Value Work: 0.219 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.219 

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Ligand Structure Quality Assessment 

This is version 1.7 of the entry. See complete history


Pyruvate kinase M2 activators promote tetramer formation and suppress tumorigenesis.

Anastasiou, D.Yu, Y.Israelsen, W.J.Jiang, J.K.Boxer, M.B.Hong, B.S.Tempel, W.Dimov, S.Shen, M.Jha, A.Yang, H.Mattaini, K.R.Metallo, C.M.Fiske, B.P.Courtney, K.D.Malstrom, S.Khan, T.M.Kung, C.Skoumbourdis, A.P.Veith, H.Southall, N.Walsh, M.J.Brimacombe, K.R.Leister, W.Lunt, S.Y.Johnson, Z.R.Yen, K.E.Kunii, K.Davidson, S.M.Christofk, H.R.Austin, C.P.Inglese, J.Harris, M.H.Asara, J.M.Stephanopoulos, G.Salituro, F.G.Jin, S.Dang, L.Auld, D.S.Park, H.W.Cantley, L.C.Thomas, C.J.Vander Heiden, M.G.

(2012) Nat Chem Biol 8: 839-847

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nchembio.1060
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    3ME3, 3U2Z

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Cancer cells engage in a metabolic program to enhance biosynthesis and support cell proliferation. The regulatory properties of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) influence altered glucose metabolism in cancer. The interaction of PKM2 with phosphotyrosine-containing proteins inhibits enzyme activity and increases the availability of glycolytic metabolites to support cell proliferation. This suggests that high pyruvate kinase activity may suppress tumor growth. We show that expression of PKM1, the pyruvate kinase isoform with high constitutive activity, or exposure to published small-molecule PKM2 activators inhibits the growth of xenograft tumors. Structural studies reveal that small-molecule activators bind PKM2 at the subunit interaction interface, a site that is distinct from that of the endogenous activator fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP). However, unlike FBP, binding of activators to PKM2 promotes a constitutively active enzyme state that is resistant to inhibition by tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. These data support the notion that small-molecule activation of PKM2 can interfere with anabolic metabolism.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Medicine, Division of Signal Transduction, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Pyruvate kinase isozymes M1/M2
A, B, C, D
550Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P14618 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P14618 
Go to UniProtKB:  P14618
PHAROS:  P14618
GTEx:  ENSG00000067225 
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP14618
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 4 Unique
IDChains Name / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
Query on 3SZ

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
E [auth A],
UA [auth D]
C19 H23 N3 O6 S2
Query on FBP

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
F [auth A],
HA [auth C],
V [auth B],
VA [auth D]
C6 H14 O12 P2
Query on SO4

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
G [auth A],
IA [auth C],
W [auth B],
WA [auth D]
O4 S
Query on UNX

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
AA [auth B]
AB [auth D]
BA [auth B]
BB [auth D]
CA [auth B]
AA [auth B],
AB [auth D],
BA [auth B],
BB [auth D],
CA [auth B],
CB [auth D],
DA [auth B],
DB [auth D],
EA [auth B],
FA [auth B],
GA [auth B],
H [auth A],
I [auth A],
J [auth A],
JA [auth C],
K [auth A],
KA [auth C],
L [auth A],
LA [auth C],
M [auth A],
MA [auth C],
N [auth A],
NA [auth C],
O [auth A],
OA [auth C],
P [auth A],
PA [auth C],
Q [auth A],
QA [auth C],
R [auth A],
RA [auth C],
S [auth A],
SA [auth C],
T [auth A],
TA [auth C],
U [auth A],
X [auth B],
XA [auth D],
Y [auth B],
YA [auth D],
Z [auth B],
ZA [auth D]
Binding Affinity Annotations 
IDSourceBinding Affinity
3SZ BindingDB:  3ME3 EC50: 38 (nM) from 1 assay(s)
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 80.882α = 90
b = 152.564β = 103.17
c = 93.036γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
DENZOdata reduction
SCALEPACKdata scaling
PDB_EXTRACTdata extraction
StructureStudiodata collection
HKL-2000data reduction
HKL-2000data scaling

Structure Validation

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Ligand Structure Quality Assessment 

Entry History 

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2010-04-28
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2012-09-12
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.3: 2012-11-07
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.4: 2013-01-02
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.5: 2017-11-08
    Changes: Refinement description
  • Version 1.6: 2020-07-29
    Type: Remediation
    Reason: Carbohydrate remediation
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Derived calculations, Structure summary
  • Version 1.7: 2023-09-06
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Refinement description, Structure summary