On the Mechanism of Peptidoglycan Binding and Cleavage by the endo-Specific Lytic Transglycosylase MltE from Escherichia coli.Fibriansah, G., Gliubich, F.I., Thunnissen, A.M.
(2012) Biochemistry 51: 9164-9177
- PubMed: 23075328
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/bi300900t
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
3T36, 4HJV, 4HJY, 4HJZ
- PubMed Abstract:
The lytic transglycosylase MltE from Escherichia coli is a periplasmic, outer membrane-attached enzyme that cleaves the β-1,4-glycosidic bonds between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine residues in the cell wall peptidoglycan, producing 1,6-anhydromuropeptides. Here we report three crystal structures of MltE: in a substrate-free state, in a binary complex with chitopentaose, and in a ternary complex with the glycopeptide inhibitor bulgecin A and the murodipeptide N-acetylglucosaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl-l-Ala-d-Glu. The substrate-bound structures allowed a detailed analysis of the saccharide-binding interactions in six subsites of the peptidoglycan-binding groove (subsites -4 to +2) and, combined with site-directed mutagenesis analysis, confirmed the role of Glu64 as catalytic acid/base. The structures permitted the precise modeling of a short glycan strand of eight saccharide residues, providing evidence for two additional subsites (+3 and +4) and revealing the productive conformational state of the substrate at subsites -1 and +1, where the glycosidic bond is cleaved. Full accessibility of the peptidoglycan-binding groove and preferential binding of an N-acetylmuramic acid residue in a (4)C(1) chair conformation at subsite +2 explain why MltE shows only endo- and no exo-specific activity toward glycan strands. The results further indicate that catalysis of glycosidic bond cleavage by MltE proceeds via distortion toward a sofa-like conformation of the N-acetylmuramic acid sugar ring at subsite -1 and by anchimeric assistance of the sugar's N-acetyl group, as shown previously for the lytic transglycosylases Slt70 and MltB.
Laboratory of Biophysical Chemistry, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands.