Structural evidence for a dehydrated intermediate in green fluorescent protein chromophore biosynthesis.Pletneva, N.V., Pletnev, V.Z., Lukyanov, K.A., Gurskaya, N.G., Goryacheva, E.A., Martynov, V.I., Wlodawer, A., Dauter, Z., Pletnev, S.
(2010) J.Biol.Chem. 285: 15978-15984
- PubMed: 20220148
- DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M109.092320
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
The acGFPL is the first-identified member of a novel, colorless and non-fluorescent group of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like proteins. Its mutant aceGFP, with Gly replacing the invariant catalytic Glu-222, demonstrates a relatively fast maturati ...
The acGFPL is the first-identified member of a novel, colorless and non-fluorescent group of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like proteins. Its mutant aceGFP, with Gly replacing the invariant catalytic Glu-222, demonstrates a relatively fast maturation rate and bright green fluorescence (lambda(ex) = 480 nm, lambda(em) = 505 nm). The reverse G222E single mutation in aceGFP results in the immature, colorless variant aceGFP-G222E, which undergoes irreversible photoconversion to a green fluorescent state under UV light exposure. Here we present a high resolution crystallographic study of aceGFP and aceGFP-G222E in the immature and UV-photoconverted states. A unique and striking feature of the colorless aceGFP-G222E structure is the chromophore in the trapped intermediate state, where cyclization of the protein backbone has occurred, but Tyr-66 still stays in the native, non-oxidized form, with C(alpha) and C(beta) atoms in the sp(3) hybridization. This experimentally observed immature aceGFP-G222E structure, characterized by the non-coplanar arrangement of the imidazolone and phenolic rings, has been attributed to one of the intermediate states in the GFP chromophore biosynthesis. The UV irradiation (lambda = 250-300 nm) of aceGFP-G222E drives the chromophore maturation further to a green fluorescent state, characterized by the conventional coplanar bicyclic structure with the oxidized double Tyr-66 C(alpha)=C(beta) bond and the conjugated system of pi-electrons. Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis has revealed a critical role of the proximal Tyr-220 in the observed effects. In particular, an alternative reaction pathway via Tyr-220 rather than conventional wild type Glu-222 has been proposed for aceGFP maturation.
Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117997 GSP, Moscow V-437, Russia. email@example.com