Crystal structure of a monomeric green fluorescent protein, Azami-Green (mAG)

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.20 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.259 
  • R-Value Work: 0.205 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.208 

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The structure of mAG, a monomeric mutant of the green fluorescent protein Azami-Green, reveals the structural basis of its stable green emission

Ebisawa, T.Yamamura, A.Kameda, Y.Hayakawa, K.Nagata, K.Tanokura, M.

(2010) Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 66: 485-489

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1107/S1744309110011127
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Monomeric Azami-Green (mAG) from the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis is the first known monomeric green-emitting fluorescent protein that is not a variant of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (avGFP). These two green fluorescent proteins are only 27% identical in their amino-acid sequences. mAG is more similar in its amino-acid sequence to four fluorescent proteins: Dendra2 (a green-to-red irreversibly photoconverting fluorescent protein), Dronpa (a bright-and-dark reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent protein), KikG (a tetrameric green-emitting fluorescent protein) and Kaede (another green-to-red irreversibly photoconverting fluorescent protein). To reveal the structural basis of stable green emission by mAG, the 2.2 A crystal structure of mAG has been determined and compared with the crystal structures of avGFP, Dronpa, Dendra2, Kaede and KikG. The structural comparison revealed that the chromophore formed by Gln62-Tyr63-Gly64 (QYG) and the fixing of the conformation of the imidazole ring of His193 by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals contacts involving His193, Arg66 and Thr69 are likely to be required for the stable green emission of mAG. The crystal structure of mAG will contribute to the design and development of new monomeric fluorescent proteins with faster maturation, brighter fluorescence, improved photostability, new colours and other preferable properties as alternatives to avGFP and its variants.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Monomeric Azami Green
A, B
226Galaxea fascicularisMutation(s): 1 
Gene Names: GFP
Find proteins for Q60I24 (Galaxea fascicularis)
Explore Q60I24 
Go to UniProtKB:  Q60I24
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupQ60I24
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Modified Residues  1 Unique
IDChains TypeFormula2D DiagramParent
Query on CRQ
A, B
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.20 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.259 
  • R-Value Work: 0.205 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.208 
  • Space Group: P 1
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 41.78α = 90.96
b = 51.72β = 103.41
c = 52.89γ = 101.79
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
PDB_EXTRACTdata extraction
ADSCdata collection
XDSdata reduction
XDSdata scaling

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2010-05-19
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Advisory, Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2023-11-01
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Derived calculations, Refinement description
  • Version 2.0: 2023-11-15
    Changes: Atomic model, Data collection, Derived calculations