Androgen receptor LBD with small molecule

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.10 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.260 
  • R-Value Work: 0.220 

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A surface on the androgen receptor that allosterically regulates coactivator binding.

Estebanez-Perpina, E.Arnold, L.A.Arnold, A.A.Nguyen, P.Rodrigues, E.D.Mar, E.Bateman, R.Pallai, P.Shokat, K.M.Baxter, J.D.Guy, R.K.Webb, P.Fletterick, R.J.

(2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104: 16074-16079

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0708036104
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    2PIO, 2PIP, 2PIQ, 2PIR, 2PIT, 2PIU, 2PIV, 2PIW, 2PIX, 2PKL, 2QPY

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Current approaches to inhibit nuclear receptor (NR) activity target the hormone binding pocket but face limitations. We have proposed that inhibitors, which bind to nuclear receptor surfaces that mediate assembly of the receptor's binding partners, might overcome some of these limitations. The androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in prostate cancer, but conventional inhibitors lose effectiveness as cancer treatments because anti-androgen resistance usually develops. We conducted functional and x-ray screens to identify compounds that bind the AR surface and block binding of coactivators for AR activation function 2 (AF-2). Four compounds that block coactivator binding in solution with IC(50) approximately 50 microM and inhibit AF-2 activity in cells were detected: three nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and the thyroid hormone 3,3',5-triiodothyroacetic acid. Although visualization of compounds at the AR surface reveals weak binding at AF-2, the most potent inhibitors bind preferentially to a previously unknown regulatory surface cleft termed binding function (BF)-3, which is a known target for mutations in prostate cancer and androgen insensitivity syndrome. X-ray structural analysis reveals that 3,3',5-triiodothyroacetic acid binding to BF-3 remodels the adjacent interaction site AF-2 to weaken coactivator binding. Mutation of residues that form BF-3 inhibits AR function and AR AF-2 activity. We propose that BF-3 is a previously unrecognized allosteric regulatory site needed for AR activity in vivo and a possible pharmaceutical target.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Androgen receptor251Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: ARDHTRNR3C4
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P10275 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P10275 
Go to UniProtKB:  P10275
GTEx:  ENSG00000169083 
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP10275
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Binding Affinity Annotations 
IDSourceBinding Affinity
DHT BindingDB:  2PIR Ki: min: 0.2, max: 10 (nM) from 12 assay(s)
IC50: min: 0.05, max: 18.5 (nM) from 14 assay(s)
EC50: min: 0.05, max: 20 (nM) from 14 assay(s)
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.10 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.260 
  • R-Value Work: 0.220 
  • Space Group: P 21 21 21
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 55.662α = 90
b = 66.06β = 90
c = 70.192γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
ELVESdata reduction
ELVESdata scaling

Structure Validation

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Ligand Structure Quality Assessment 

Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2007-09-25
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2017-10-18
    Changes: Refinement description
  • Version 1.3: 2024-02-21
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Derived calculations