The structure of deoxycytidine kinase complexed with lamivudine and ADP.

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 1.80 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.233 
  • R-Value Work: 0.193 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.197 

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Structural basis for activation of the therapeutic L-nucleoside analogs 3TC and troxacitabine by human deoxycytidine kinase.

Sabini, E.Hazra, S.Konrad, M.Burley, S.K.Lavie, A.

(2007) Nucleic Acids Res 35: 186-192

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkl1038
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    2NO9, 2NOA

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    L-nucleoside analogs represent an important class of small molecules for treating both viral infections and cancers. These pro-drugs achieve pharmacological activity only after enzyme-catalyzed conversion to their tri-phosphorylated forms. Herein, we report the crystal structures of human deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) in complex with the L-nucleosides (-)-beta-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC)--an approved anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agent--and troxacitabine (TRO)--an experimental anti-neoplastic agent. The first step in activating these agents is catalyzed by dCK. Our studies reveal how dCK, which normally catalyzes phosphorylation of the natural D-nucleosides, can efficiently phosphorylate substrates with non-physiologic chirality. The capability of dCK to phosphorylate both D- and L-nucleosides and nucleoside analogs derives from structural properties of both the enzyme and the substrates themselves. First, the nucleoside-binding site tolerates substrates with different chiral configurations by maintaining virtually all of the protein-ligand interactions responsible for productive substrate positioning. Second, the pseudo-symmetry of nucleosides and nucleoside analogs in combination with their conformational flexibility allows the L- and D-enantiomeric forms to adopt similar shapes when bound to the enzyme. This is the first analysis of the structural basis for activation of L-nucleoside analogs, providing further impetus for discovery and clinical development of new agents in this molecular class.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Illinois Chicago, 900 S. Ashland (M/C 669), Chicago, IL 60607, USA.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
deoxycytidine kinase
A, B
280Homo sapiensMutation(s): 4 
Gene Names: DCK
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P27707 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P27707 
Go to UniProtKB:  P27707
PHAROS:  P27707
GTEx:  ENSG00000156136 
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP27707
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 1.80 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.233 
  • R-Value Work: 0.193 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.197 
  • Space Group: C 2 2 21
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 52.64α = 90
b = 134.24β = 90
c = 154.86γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
XDSdata reduction
XSCALEdata scaling

Structure Validation

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Ligand Structure Quality Assessment 

Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2007-02-13
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-05-01
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.3: 2021-02-03
    Changes: Database references, Derived calculations
  • Version 1.4: 2021-10-20
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.5: 2023-08-30
    Changes: Data collection, Refinement description