Structure and Reactivity of Lpxd, the N-Acyltransferase of Lipid a BiosynthesisBuetow, L., Smith, T.K., Dawson, A., Fyffe, S., Hunter, W.N.
(2007) Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 104: 4321
- PubMed: 17360522
- DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0606356104
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
The external layer of the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane is primarily composed of a protective, selectively permeable LPS. The biosynthesis of LPS relies on UDP-3-O-acyl-glucosamine N-acyltransferase (LpxD), which transfers 3-hydroxy-arachidi ...
The external layer of the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane is primarily composed of a protective, selectively permeable LPS. The biosynthesis of LPS relies on UDP-3-O-acyl-glucosamine N-acyltransferase (LpxD), which transfers 3-hydroxy-arachidic acid from acyl carrier protein to the 2' amine of UDP-3-O-myristoyl glucosamine in Chlamydia trachomatis. Our crystallographic study reveals that LpxD is a homotrimer, each subunit of which is constructed from a novel combination of an N-terminal uridine-binding domain, a core lipid-binding domain, and a C-terminal helical extension. Highly conserved residues dominate nucleotide binding. Phe-43 and Tyr-49 form pi-stacking interactions with uracil, and Asn-46 and His-284 form hydrogen bonds with the phosphate groups. These interactions place the glucosamine moiety at the catalytic center formed by two adjacent subunits. Here His-247 and His-284 contribute to a mechanism involving nucleophilic attack by the amine of one substrate on the carbonyl carbon of an acyl carrier protein thioester conjugate. Serendipitously, our study reveals a fatty acid (FA) binding groove near the catalytic center. MS elucidated the presence of a FA mixture binding to LpxD, with palmitic acid the most prevalent. The placement of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and the FA provides details of N-acyltransferase ligand interactions and allows for a description of structure and reactivity at an early stage of LPS assembly.
Division of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, United Kingdom.