Crystal Structures of Clinically Relevant Lys103Asn/Tyr181Cys Double Mutant HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase in Complexes with ATP and Non-nucleoside Inhibitor HBY 097.Das, K., Sarafianos, S.G., Clark, A.D., Boyer, P.L., Hughes, S.H., Arnold, E.
(2007) J Mol Biol 365: 77-89
- PubMed: 17056061
- DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2006.08.097
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
- Structure of Unliganded HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase at 2.7 A Resolution: Implications of Conformational Changes for Polymerization and Inhibition Mechanisms
Hsiou, Y., Ding, J., Das, K., D Clark, A., Hughes, S.H., Arnold, E.
(1996) Structure 4: 853
- Crystal structures of 8-Cl and 9-Cl TIBO complexed with wild-type HIV-1 RT and 8-Cl TIBO complexed with the Tyr181Cys HIV-1 RT drug-resistant mutant.
Das, K., Ding, J., Hsiou, Y., Clark, A.D., Moereels, H., Koymans, L., Andries, K., Pauwels, R., Janssen, P.A., Boyer, P.L., Clark, P., Smith, R.H., Kroeger Smith, M.B., Michejda, C.J., Hughes, S.H., Arnold, E.
(1996) J Mol Biol 264: 1085
- Structures of Tyr188Leu mutant and wild-type HIV-1 reverse transcriptase complexed with the non-nucleoside inhibitor HBY 097: inhibitor flexibility is a useful design feature for reducing drug resistance.
Hsiou, Y., Das, K., Ding, J., Clark, A.D., Kleim, J.P., Winkler, I., Riess, G., Hughes, S.H., Arnold, E.
(1998) J Mol Biol 284: 313
- The Lys103Asn mutation of HIV-1 RT: a novel mechanism of drug resistance.
Hsiou, Y., Ding, J., Das, K., Clark, A.D., Boyer, P.L., Lewi, P., Janssen, P.A., Kleim, J.P., Hughes, S.H., Arnold, E.
(2001) J Mol Biol 309: 437
- Roles of conformational and positional adaptability in structure-based design of TMC125-R165335 (etravirine) and related non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors that are highly potent and effective against wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1 variants.
Das, K., Clark, A.D., Lewi, P.J., Heeres, J., De Jonge, M.R., Koymans, L.M., Vinkers, H.M., Daeyaert, F., Ludovici, D.W., Kukla, M.J., De Corte, B., Kavash, R.W., Ho, C.Y., Ye, H., Lichtenstein, M.A., Andries, K., Pauwels, R., Boyer, P.L., Clark, P., Hughes, S.H., Janssen, P.A., Arnold, E.
(2004) J Med Chem 47: 2550
Lys103Asn and Tyr181Cys are the two mutations frequently observed in patients exposed to various non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor drugs (NNRTIs). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) strains containing both reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations are resistant to all of the approved NNRTI drugs ...
Lys103Asn and Tyr181Cys are the two mutations frequently observed in patients exposed to various non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor drugs (NNRTIs). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) strains containing both reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations are resistant to all of the approved NNRTI drugs. We have determined crystal structures of Lys103Asn/Tyr181Cys mutant HIV-1 RT with and without a bound non-nucleoside inhibitor (HBY 097, (S)-4-isopropoxycarbonyl-6-methoxy-3-(methylthio-methyl)-3,4-dihydroquinoxalin-2(1H)-thione) at 3.0 A and 2.5 A resolution, respectively. The structure of the double mutant RT/HBY 097 complex shows a rearrangement of the isopropoxycarbonyl group of HBY 097 compared to its binding with wild-type RT. HBY 097 makes a hydrogen bond with the thiol group of Cys181 that helps the drug retain potency against the Tyr181Cys mutation. The structure of the unliganded double mutant HIV-1 RT showed that Lys103Asn mutation facilitates coordination of a sodium ion with Lys101 O, Asn103 N and O(delta1), Tyr188 O(eta), and two water molecules. The formation of the binding pocket requires the removal of the sodium ion. Although the RT alone and the RT/HBY 097 complex were crystallized in the presence of ATP, only the RT has an ATP coordinated with two Mn(2+) at the polymerase active site. The metal coordination mimics a reaction intermediate state in which complete octahedral coordination was observed for both metal ions. Asp186 coordinates at an axial position whereas the carboxylates of Asp110 and Asp185 are in the planes of coordination of both metal ions. The structures provide evidence that NNRTIs restrict the flexibility of the YMDD loop and prevent the catalytic aspartate residues from adopting their metal-binding conformations.
Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.