Tertiary Interactions Stabilise the C-terminal Region of Human Glutathione Transferase A1-1: a Crystallographic and Calorimetric Study.Kuhnert, D.C., Sayed, Y., Mosebi, S., Sayed, M., Sewell, T., Dirr, H.W.
(2005) J.Mol.Biol. 349: 825-838
- PubMed: 15893769
- DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2005.04.025
- PubMed Abstract:
The C-terminal region in class Alpha glutathione transferase A1-1 (GSTA1-1), which forms an amphipathic alpha-helix (helix 9), is known to contribute to the catalytic and non-substrate ligand-binding functions of the enzyme. The region in the apo pro ...
The C-terminal region in class Alpha glutathione transferase A1-1 (GSTA1-1), which forms an amphipathic alpha-helix (helix 9), is known to contribute to the catalytic and non-substrate ligand-binding functions of the enzyme. The region in the apo protein is proposed to be disordered which, upon ligand binding at the active-site, becomes structured and localised. Because Ile219 plays a pivotal role in the stability and localisation of the region, the role of tertiary interactions mediated by Ile219 in determining the conformation and dynamics of the C-terminal region were studied. Ligand-binding microcalorimetric and X-ray structural data were obtained to characterise ligand binding at the active-site and the associated localisation of the C-terminal region. In the crystal structure of the I219A hGSTA1-1.S-hexylglutathione complex, the C-terminal region of one chain is mobile and not observed (unresolved electron density), whereas the corresponding region of the other chain is localised and structured as a result of crystal packing interactions. In solution, the mutant C-terminal region of both chains in the complex is mobile and delocalised resulting in a hydrated, less hydrophobic active-site and a reduction in the affinity of the protein for S-hexylglutathione. Complete dehydration of the active-site, important for maintaining the highly reactive thiolate form of glutathione, requires the binding of ligands and the subsequent localisation of the C-terminal region. Thermodynamic data demonstrate that the mobile C-terminal region in apo hGSTA1-1 is structured and does not undergo ligand-induced folding. Its close proximity to the surface of the wild-type protein is indicated by the concurrence between the observed heat capacity change of complex formation and the type and amount of surface area that becomes buried at the ligand-protein interface when the C-terminal region in the apo protein assumes the same localised structure as that observed in the wild-type complex.
Protein Structure-Function Research Programme, School of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa.