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Rational design of a novel enzyme - efficient thioester hydrolysis enabled by the incorporation of a single His residue into human glutathione transferase A1-1


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.07 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.245 
  • R-Value Work: 0.189 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.3 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

Incorporation of a Single His Residue by Rational Design Enables Thiol-Ester Hydrolysis by Human Glutathione Transferase A1-1

Hederos, S.Broo, K.S.Jakobsson, E.Kleywegt, G.J.Mannervik, B.Baltzer, L.

(2004) Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 101: 13163

  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0403045101

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • A strategy for rational enzyme design is reported and illustrated by the engineering of a protein catalyst for thiol-ester hydrolysis. Five mutants of human glutathione (GSH; gamma-Glu-Cys-Gly) transferase A1-1 were designed in the search for a catal ...

    A strategy for rational enzyme design is reported and illustrated by the engineering of a protein catalyst for thiol-ester hydrolysis. Five mutants of human glutathione (GSH; gamma-Glu-Cys-Gly) transferase A1-1 were designed in the search for a catalyst and to provide a set of proteins from which the reaction mechanism could be elucidated. The single mutant A216H catalyzed the hydrolysis of the S-benzoyl ester of GSH under turnover conditions with a k(cat)/K(M) of 156 M(-1) x min(-1), and a catalytic proficiency of >10(7) M(-1) when compared with the first-order rate constant of the uncatalyzed reaction. The wild-type enzyme did not hydrolyze the substrate, and thus, the introduction of a single histidine residue transformed the wild-type enzyme into a turnover system for thiol-ester hydrolysis. By kinetic analysis of single, double, and triple mutants, as well as from studies of reaction products, it was established that the enzyme A216H catalyzes the hydrolysis of the thiol-ester substrate by a mechanism that includes an acyl intermediate at the side chain of Y9. Kinetic measurements and the crystal structure of the A216H GSH complex provided compelling evidence that H216 acts as a general-base catalyst. The introduction of a single His residue into human GSH transferase A1-1 created an unprecedented enzymatic function, suggesting a strategy that may be of broad applicability in the design of new enzymes. The protein catalyst has the hallmarks of a native enzyme and is expected to catalyze various hydrolytic, as well as transesterification, reactions.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Chemistry, IFM, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE A1
A, B
225Homo sapiensMutation(s): 1 
Gene Names: GSTA1
EC: 2.5.1.18
Find proteins for P08263 (Homo sapiens)
Go to Gene View: GSTA1
Go to UniProtKB:  P08263
Small Molecules
Ligands 3 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
K
Query on K

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B
POTASSIUM ION
K
NPYPAHLBTDXSSS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
CL
Query on CL

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B
CHLORIDE ION
Cl
VEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-M
 Ligand Interaction
GSH
Query on GSH

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B
GLUTATHIONE
C10 H17 N3 O6 S
RWSXRVCMGQZWBV-WDSKDSINSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.07 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.245 
  • R-Value Work: 0.189 
  • Space Group: C 1 2 1
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 98.906α = 90.00
b = 92.050β = 93.21
c = 51.272γ = 90.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
SCALAdata scaling
MOSFLMdata reduction
REFMACrefinement

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2004-09-01
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2011-05-08
    Type: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Type: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.3: 2018-01-17
    Type: Advisory, Data collection