Design of amino acid aldehydes as transition-state analogue inhibitors of arginaseShin, H., Cama, E., Christianson, D.W.
(2004) J.Am.Chem.Soc. 126: 10278-10284
- PubMed: 15315440
- DOI: 10.1021/ja047788w
- PubMed Abstract:
Arginase is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of l-arginine to form l-ornithine and urea. Chiral L-amino acids bearing aldehyde side chains have been synthesized in which the electrophilic aldehyde C=O bond is isosteri ...
Arginase is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of l-arginine to form l-ornithine and urea. Chiral L-amino acids bearing aldehyde side chains have been synthesized in which the electrophilic aldehyde C=O bond is isosteric with the C=N bond of L-arginine. This substitution is intended to facilitate nucleophilic attack by the metal-bridging hydroxide ion upon binding to the arginase active site. Syntheses of the amino acid aldehydes have been accomplished by reduction, oxidation, and Wittig-type reaction with a commercially available derivative of L-glutamic acid. Amino acid aldehydes exhibit inhibition in the micromolar range, and the X-ray crystal structure of arginase I complexed with one of these inhibitors, (S)-2-amino-7-oxoheptanoic acid, has been determined at 2.2 A resolution. In the enzyme-inhibitor complex, the inhibitor aldehyde moiety is hydrated to form the gem-diol: one hydroxyl group bridges the Mn(2+)(2) cluster and donates a hydrogen bond to D128, and the second hydroxyl group donates a hydrogen bond to E277. The binding mode of the neutral gem-diol may mimic the binding of the neutral tetrahedral intermediate and its flanking transition states in arginase catalysis.
Contribution from the Roy and Diana Vagelos Laboratories, Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6323, USA.