The Crystal Structure and Mechanism of Human Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.10 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.223 
  • R-Value Work: 0.198 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.198 

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Crystal Structures of Human Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase with and without an Alternate Substrate: Structural Bases of Dehydrogenation and Decarboxylation Reactions

Fu, Z.Wang, M.Paschke, R.Rao, K.S.Frerman, F.E.Kim, J.J.

(2004) Biochemistry 43: 9674-9684

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/bi049290c
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    1SIQ, 1SIR

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACDs) are a family of flavoenzymes that metabolize fatty acids and some amino acids. Of nine known ACDs, glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCD) is unique: in addition to the alpha,beta-dehydrogenation reaction, common to all ACDs, GCD catalyzes decarboxylation of glutaryl-CoA to produce CO(2) and crotonyl-CoA. Crystal structures of GCD and its complex with 4-nitrobutyryl-CoA have been determined to 2.1 and 2.6 A, respectively. The overall polypeptide folds are the same and similar to the structures of other family members. The active site of the unliganded structure is filled with water molecules that are displaced when enzyme binds the substrate. The structure strongly suggests that the mechanism of dehydrogenation is the same as in other ACDs. The substrate binds at the re side of the FAD ring. Glu370 abstracts the C2 pro-R proton, which is acidified by the polarization of the thiolester carbonyl oxygen through hydrogen bonding to the 2'-OH of FAD and the amide nitrogen of Glu370. The C3 pro-R proton is transferred to the N(5) atom of FAD. The structures indicate a plausible mechanism for the decarboxylation reaction. The carbonyl polarization initiates decarboxylation, and Arg94 stabilizes the transient crotonyl-CoA anion. Protonation of the crotonyl-CoA anion occurs by a 1,3-prototropic shift catalyzed by the conjugated acid of the general base, Glu370. A tight hydrogen-bonding network involving gamma-carboxylate of the enzyme-bound glutaconyl-CoA, with Tyr369, Glu87, Arg94, Ser95, and Thr170, optimizes orientation of the gamma-carboxylate for decarboxylation. Some pathogenic mutations are explained by the structure. The mutations affect protein folding, stability, and/or substrate binding, resulting in inefficient/inactive enzyme.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase392Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for Q92947 (Homo sapiens)
Explore Q92947 
Go to UniProtKB:  Q92947
PHAROS:  Q92947
GTEx:  ENSG00000105607 
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupQ92947
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 1 Unique
IDChains Name / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
Query on FAD

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
C27 H33 N9 O15 P2
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.10 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.223 
  • R-Value Work: 0.198 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.198 
  • Space Group: P 64 2 2
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 116.96α = 90
b = 116.96β = 90
c = 128.02γ = 120
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
DENZOdata reduction
SCALEPACKdata scaling

Structure Validation

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Ligand Structure Quality Assessment 

Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2004-09-07
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-04-29
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Derived calculations, Version format compliance
  • Version 1.3: 2024-02-14
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Derived calculations