A Two-domain Structure of One Subunit Explains Unique Features of Eukaryotic Hydratase 2.Koski, M.K., Haapalainen, A.M., Hiltunen, J.K., Glumoff, T.
(2004) J Biol Chem 279: 24666-24672
- PubMed: 15051722
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M400293200
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
2-Enoyl-CoA hydratase 2, a part from multifunctional enzyme type 2, hydrates trans-2-enoyl-CoA to 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA in the (3R)-hydroxy-dependent route of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. Unliganded and (3R)-hydroxydecanoyl coenzyme A-complexed crystal structures of 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase 2 from Candida tropicalis multifunctional enzyme type 2 were solved to 1.95- and 2.35-A resolution, respectively. 2-Enoyl-CoA hydratase 2 is a dimeric, alpha+beta protein with a novel quaternary structure. The overall structure of the two-domain subunit of eukaryotic 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase 2 resembles the homodimeric, hot dog fold structures of prokaryotic (R)-specific 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase and beta-hydroxydecanoyl thiol ester dehydrase. Importantly, though, the eukaryotic hydratase 2 has a complete hot dog fold only in its C-domain, whereas the N-domain lacks a long central alpha-helix, thus creating space for bulkier substrates in the binding pocket and explaining the observed difference in substrate preference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic enzymes. Although the N- and C-domains have an identity of <10% at the amino acid level, they share a 50% identity at the nucleotide level and fold similarly. We suggest that a subunit of 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase 2 has evolved via a gene duplication with the concomitant loss of one catalytic site. The hydrogen bonding network of the active site of 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase 2 resembles the active site geometry of mitochondrial (S)-specific 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase 1, although in a mirror image fashion. This arrangement allows the reaction to occur by similar mechanism, supported by mutagenesis and mechanistic studies, although via reciprocal stereochemistry.
Department of Biochemistry and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, P. O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 University of Oulu, Finland.