Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 1.9 Å

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report

This is version 1.3 of the entry. See complete history


Folding and function of a T4 lysozyme containing 10 consecutive alanines illustrate the redundancy of information in an amino acid sequence.

Heinz, D.W.Baase, W.A.Matthews, B.W.

(1992) Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 89: 3751-3755

  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  1L64, 1L65, 1L66, 1L68

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Single and multiple Xaa----Ala substitutions were constructed in the alpha-helix comprising residues 39-50 in bacteriophage T4 lysozyme. The variant with alanines at 10 consecutive positions (A40-49) folds normally and has activity essentially the sa ...

    Single and multiple Xaa----Ala substitutions were constructed in the alpha-helix comprising residues 39-50 in bacteriophage T4 lysozyme. The variant with alanines at 10 consecutive positions (A40-49) folds normally and has activity essentially the same as wild type, although it is less stable. The crystal structure of this polyalanine mutant displays no significant change in the main-chain atoms of the helix when compared with the wild-type structure. The individual substitutions of the solvent-exposed residues Asn-40, Ser-44, and Glu-45 with alanine tend to increase the thermostability of the protein, whereas replacements of the buried or partially buried residues Lys-43 and Leu-46 are destabilizing. The melting temperature of the lysozyme in which Lys-43 and Leu-46 are retained and positions 40, 44, 45, 47, and 48 are substituted with alanine (i.e., A40-42/44-45/47-49) is increased by 3.1 degrees C relative to wild type at pH 3.0, but reduced by 1.6 degrees C at pH 6.7. In the case of the charged amino acids Glu-45 and Lys-48, the changes in melting temperature indicate that the putative salt bridge between these two residues contributes essentially nothing to the stability of the protein. The results clearly demonstrate that there is considerable redundancy in the sequence information in the polypeptide chain; not every amino acid is essential for folding. Also, further evidence is provided that the replacement of fully solvent-exposed residues within alpha-helices with alanines may be a general way to increase protein stability. The general approach may permit a simplification of the protein folding problem by retaining only amino acids proven to be essential for folding and replacing the remainder with alanine.

    Related Citations: 
    • Structural and Thermodynamic Analysis of the Packing of Two Alpha-Helices in Bacteriophage T4 Lysozyme
      Daopin, S.,Alber, T.,Baase, W.A.,Wozniak, J.A.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1991) J.Mol.Biol. 221: 647
    • Multiple Stabilizing Alanine Replacements within Alpha-Helix 126-134 of T4 Lysozyme Have Independent, Additive Effects on Both Structure and Stability
      Zhang, X.-J.,Baase, W.A.,Matthews, B.W.
      () TO BE PUBLISHED --: --
    • Common Precursor of Lysozymes of Hen Egg-White and Bacteriophage T4
      Matthews, B.W.,Gruetter, M.G.,Anderson, W.F.,Remington, S.J.
      (1981) Nature 290: 334
    • Structure of Bacteriophage T4 Lysozyme Refined at 1.7 Angstroms Resolution
      Weaver, L.H.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1987) J.Mol.Biol. 193: 189
    • Enhanced Protein Thermostability from Designed Mutations that Interact with Alpha-Helix Dipoles
      Nicholson, H.,Becktel, W.J.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1988) Nature 336: 651
    • Tolerance of T4 Lysozyme to Proline Substitutions within the Long Interdomain Alpha-Helix Illustrates the Adaptability of Proteins to Potentially Destabilizing Lesions
      Sauer, U.H.,Dao-Pin, S.,Matthews, B.W.
      () TO BE PUBLISHED --: --
    • The Structural and Thermodynamic Consequences of Burying a Charged Residue within the Hydrophobic Core of T4 Lysozyme
      Daopin, S.,Anderson, E.,Baase, W.,Dahlquist, F.W.,Matthews, B.W.
      () TO BE PUBLISHED --: --
    • Relation between Hen Egg White Lysozyme and Bacteriophage T4 Lysozyme. Evolutionary Implications
      Matthews, B.W.,Remington, S.J.,Gruetter, M.G.,Anderson, W.F.
      (1981) J.Mol.Biol. 147: 545
    • Structure of the Lysozyme from Bacteriophage T4, an Electron Density Map at 2.4 Angstroms Resolution
      Remington, S.J.,Anderson, W.F.,Owen, J.,Teneyck, L.F.,Grainger, C.T.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1978) J.Mol.Biol. 118: 81
    • Contributions of Engineered Surface Salt Bridges to the Stability of T4 Lysozyme Determined by Directed Mutagenesis
      Dao-Pin, S.,Sauer, U.,Nicholson, H.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1991) Biochemistry 30: 7142
    • Contributions of Hydrogen Bonds of Thr 157 to the Thermodynamic Stability of Phage T4 Lysozyme
      Alber, T.,Dao-Pin, S.,Wilson, K.,Wozniak, J.A.,Cook, S.P.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1987) Nature 330: 41
    • Structural Studies of Mutants of T4 Lysozyme that Alter Hydrophobic Stabilization
      Matsumura, M.,Wozniak, J.A.,Dao-Pin, S.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1989) J.Biol.Chem. 264: 16059
    • Nicholson, H.,Becktel, W.,Matthews, B.W.
      () TO BE PUBLISHED --: --
    • Analysis of the Interaction between Charged Side Chains and the Alpha-Helix Dipole Using Designed Thermostable Mutants of Phage T4 Lysozyme
      Nicholson, H.,Anderson, D.E.,Dao-Pin, S.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1991) Biochemistry 30: 9816
    • Structural Analysis of the Temperature-Sensitive Mutant of Bacteriophage T4 Lysozyme, Glycine 156 (Right Arrow) Aspartic Acid
      Gray, T.M.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1987) J.Biol.Chem. 262: 16858
    • Replacements of Pro86 in Phage T4 Lysozyme Extend an Alpha-Helix But Do not Alter Protein Stability
      Alber, T.,Bell, J.A.,Dao-Pin, S.,Nicholson, H.,Cook, J.A.Wozniak S.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1988) Science 239: 631
    • Temperature-Sensitive Mutations of Bacteriophage T4 Lysozyme Occur at Sites with Low Mobility and Low Solvent Accessibility in the Folded Protein
      Alber, T.,Dao-Pin, S.,Nye, J.A.,Muchmore, D.C.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1987) Biochemistry 26: 3754
    • Crystallographic Data for Lysozyme from Bacteriophage T4
      Matthews, B.W.,Dahlquist, F.W.,Maynard, A.Y.
      (1973) J.Mol.Biol. 78: 575
    • Structure of a Thermostable Disulfide-Bridge Mutant of Phage T4 Lysozyme Shows that an Engineered Crosslink in a Flexible Region Does not Increase the Rigidity of the Folded Protein
      Pjura, P.E.,Matsumura, M.,Wozniak, J.A.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1990) Biochemistry 29: 2592
    • Contributions of Left-Handed Helical Residues to the Structure and Stability of Bacteriophage T4 Lysozyme
      Nicholson, H.,Soderlind, E.,Tronrud, D.E.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1989) J.Mol.Biol. 210: 181
    • Comparison of the Predicted and Observed Secondary Structure of T4 Phage Lysozyme
      Matthews, B.W.
      (1975) Biochim.Biophys.Acta 405: 442
    • Cumulative Site-Directed Charge-Change Replacements in Bacteriophage T4 Lysozyme Suggest that Long-Range Electrostatic Interactions Contribute Little to Protein Stability
      Dao-Pin, S.,Soderlind, E.,Baase, W.A.,Wozniak, J.A.,Sauer, U.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1991) J.Mol.Biol. 221: 873
    • Toward a Simplification of the Protein Folding Problem: A Stabilizing Polyalanine Alpha-Helix Engineered in T4 Lysozyme
      Zhang, X.-J.,Baase, W.A.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1991) Biochemistry 30: 2012
    • Structural Studies of Mutants of the Lysozyme of Bacteriophage T4. The Temperature-Sensitive Mutant Protein Thr157 (Right Arrow) Ile
      Gruetter, M.G.,Gray, T.M.,Weaver, L.H.,Alber, T.,Wilson, K.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1987) J.Mol.Biol. 197: 315
    • High-Resolution Structure of the Temperature-Sensitive Mutant of Phage Lysozyme, Arg 96 (Right Arrow) His
      Weaver, L.H.,Gray, T.M.,Gruetter, M.G.,Anderson, D.E.,Wozniak, J.A.,Dahlquist, F.W.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1989) Biochemistry 28: 3793
    • Hydrophobic Stabilization in T4 Lysozyme Determined Directly by Multiple Substitutions of Ile 3
      Matsumura, M.,Becktel, W.J.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1988) Nature 334: 406
    • Crystallographic Determination of the Mode of Binding of Oligosaccharides to T4 Bacteriophage Lysozyme. Implications for the Mechanism of Catalysis
      Anderson, W.F.,Gruetter, M.G.,Remington, S.J.,Weaver, L.H.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1981) J.Mol.Biol. 147: 523
    • The Three Dimensional Structure of the Lysozyme from Bacteriophage T4
      Matthews, B.W.,Remington, S.J.
      (1974) Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 71: 4178
    • Enhanced Protein Thermostability from Site-Directed Mutations that Decrease the Entropy of Unfolding
      Matthews, B.W.,Nicholson, H.,Becktel, W.J.
      (1987) Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 84: 6663
    • Atomic Coordinates for T4 Phage Lysozyme
      Remington, S.J.,Teneyck, L.F.,Matthews, B.W.
      (1977) Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 75: 265

    Organizational Affiliation

    Institute of Molecular Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Oregon, Eugene 97403.


Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
164Enterobacteria phage T4N/A
Protein Feature View is not available: No corresponding UniProt sequence found.
Small Molecules
Ligands 2 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
Query on CL

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 Ligand Interaction
Query on BME

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C2 H6 O S
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 1.9 Å
  • Space Group: P 32 2 1
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 60.860α = 90.00
b = 60.860β = 90.00
c = 96.360γ = 120.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 1991-10-15
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-03-24
    Type: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Type: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.3: 2017-11-29
    Type: Derived calculations, Other