Molecular structures of the S124A, S124T, and S124V site-directed mutants of UDP-galactose 4-epimerase from Escherichia coli.Thoden, J.B., Gulick, A.M., Holden, H.M.
(1997) Biochemistry 36: 10685-10695
- PubMed: 9271499
- DOI: 10.1021/bi9704313
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:  1KVQ, 1KVR, 1KVS
- PubMed Abstract:
UDP-galactose 4-epimerase plays a critical role in sugar metabolism by catalyzing the interconversion of UDP-galactose and UDP-glucose. Originally, it was assumed that the enzyme contained a "traditional" catalytic base that served to abstract a prot ...
UDP-galactose 4-epimerase plays a critical role in sugar metabolism by catalyzing the interconversion of UDP-galactose and UDP-glucose. Originally, it was assumed that the enzyme contained a "traditional" catalytic base that served to abstract a proton from the 4'-hydroxyl group of the UDP-glucose or UDP-galactose substrates during the course of the reaction. However, recent high-resolution X-ray crystallographic analyses of the protein from Escherichia coli have demonstrated the lack of an aspartate, a glutamate, or a histidine residue properly oriented within the active site cleft for serving such a functional role. Rather, the X-ray crystallographic investigation of the epimerase.NADH.UDP-glucose abortive complex from this laboratory has shown that both Ser 124 and Tyr 149 are located within hydrogen bonding distance to the 4'- and 3'-hydroxyl groups of the sugar, respectively. To test the structural role of Ser 124 in the reaction mechanism of epimerase, three site-directed mutant proteins, namely S124A, S124T, and S124V, were constructed and crystals of the S124A.NADH.UDP, S124A.NADH.UDP-glucose, S124T. NADH.UDP-glucose, and S124V.NADH.UDP-glucose complexes were grown. All of the crystals employed in this investigation belonged to the space group P3221 with the following unit cell dimensions: a = b = 83.8 A, c = 108.4 A, and one subunit per asymmetric unit. X-ray data sets were collected to at least 2.15 A resolution, and each protein model was subsequently refined to an R value of lower than 19.0% for all measured X-ray data. The investigations described here demonstrate that the decreases in enzymatic activities observed for these mutant proteins are due to the loss of a properly positioned hydroxyl group at position 124 and not to major tertiary and quaternary structural perturbations. In addition, these structures demonstrate the importance of a hydroxyl group at position 124 in stabilizing the anti conformation of the nicotinamide ring as observed in the previous structural analysis of the epimerase.NADH. UDP complex.
Institute for Enzyme Research, Graduate School, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53705, USA.