Structures of ceftazidime and its transition-state analogue in complex with AmpC beta-lactamase: implications for resistance mutations and inhibitor design.Powers, R.A., Caselli, E., Focia, P.J., Prati, F., Shoichet, B.K.
(2001) Biochemistry 40: 9207-9214
- PubMed: 11478888
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:  1IEL
- PubMed Abstract:
Third-generation cephalosporins are widely used beta-lactam antibiotics that resist hydrolysis by beta-lactamases. Recently, mutant beta-lactamases that rapidly inactivate these drugs have emerged. To investigate why third-generation cephalosporins a ...
Third-generation cephalosporins are widely used beta-lactam antibiotics that resist hydrolysis by beta-lactamases. Recently, mutant beta-lactamases that rapidly inactivate these drugs have emerged. To investigate why third-generation cephalosporins are relatively stable to wild-type class C beta-lactamases and how mutant enzymes might overcome this, the structures of the class C beta-lactamase AmpC in complex with the third-generation cephalosporin ceftazidime and with a transition-state analogue of ceftazidime were determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.0 and 2.3 A resolution, respectively. Comparison of the acyl-enzyme structures of ceftazidime and loracarbef, a beta-lactam substrate, reveals that the conformation of ceftazidime in the active site differs from that of substrates. Comparison of the structures of the acyl-enzyme intermediate and the transition-state analogue suggests that ceftazidime blocks formation of the tetrahedral transition state, explaining why it is an inhibitor of AmpC. Ceftazidime cannot adopt a conformation competent for catalysis due to steric clashes that would occur with conserved residues Val211 and Tyr221. The X-ray crystal structure of the mutant beta-lactamase GC1, which has improved activity against third-generation cephalosporins, suggests that a tandem tripeptide insertion in the Omega loop, which contains Val211, has caused a shift of this residue and also of Tyr221 that would allow ceftazidime and other third-generation cephalosporins to adopt a more catalytically competent conformation. These structural differences may explain the extended spectrum activity of GC1 against this class of cephalosporins. In addition, the complexed structure of the transition-state analogue inhibitor (K(i) 20 nM) with AmpC reveals potential opportunities for further inhibitor design.
Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Northwestern University, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA.