Structural and Biochemical Characterization of a New Mg(2+) Binding Site Near Tyr94 in the Restriction Endonuclease PvuII.Spyridaki, A., Matzen, C., Lanio, T., Jeltsch, A., Simoncsits, A., Athanasiadis, A., Scheuring-Vanamee, E., Kokkinidis, M., Pingoud, A.
(2003) J.Mol.Biol. 331: 395
- PubMed: 12888347
- PubMed Abstract:
- Crystal Structure of PvuII Endonuclease Reveals Extensive Structural Homologies to EcoRV
Athanasiadis, A.,Vlassi, M.,Kotsifaki, D.,Tucker, P.A.,Wilson, K.S.,Kokkinidis, M.
(1994) Nat.Struct.Mol.Biol. 1: 469
We have determined the crystal structure of the PvuII endonuclease in the presence of Mg(2+). According to the structural data, divalent metal ion binding in the PvuII subunits is highly asymmetric. The PvuII-Mg(2+) complex has two distinct metal ion ...
We have determined the crystal structure of the PvuII endonuclease in the presence of Mg(2+). According to the structural data, divalent metal ion binding in the PvuII subunits is highly asymmetric. The PvuII-Mg(2+) complex has two distinct metal ion binding sites, one in each monomer. One site is formed by the catalytic residues Asp58 and Glu68, and has extensive similarities to a catalytically important site found in all structurally examined restriction endonucleases. The other binding site is located in the other monomer, in the immediate vicinity of the hydroxyl group of Tyr94; it has no analogy to metal ion binding sites found so far in restriction endonucleases. To assign the number of metal ions involved and to better understand the role of Mg(2+) binding to Tyr94 for the function of PvuII, we have exchanged Tyr94 by Phe and characterized the metal ion dependence of DNA cleavage of wild-type PvuII and the Y94F variant. Wild-type PvuII cleaves both strands of the DNA in a concerted reaction. Mg(2+) binding, as measured by the Mg(2+) dependence of DNA cleavage, occurs with a Hill coefficient of 4, meaning that at least two metal ions are bound to each subunit in a cooperative fashion upon formation of the active complex. Quenched-flow experiments show that DNA cleavage occurs about tenfold faster if Mg(2+) is pre-incubated with enzyme or DNA than if preformed enzyme-DNA complexes are mixed with Mg(2+). These results show that Mg(2+) cannot easily enter the active center of the preformed enzyme-DNA complex, but that for fast cleavage the metal ions must already be bound to the apoenzyme and carried with the enzyme into the enzyme-DNA complex. The Y94F variant, in contrast to wild-type PvuII, does not cleave DNA in a concerted manner and metal ion binding occurs with a Hill coefficient of 1. These results indicate that removal of the Mg(2+) binding site at Tyr94 completely disrupts the cooperativity in DNA cleavage. Moreover, in quenched-flow experiments Y94F cleaves DNA about ten times more slowly than wild-type PvuII, regardless of the order of mixing. From these results we conclude that wild-type PvuII cleaves DNA in a fast and concerted reaction, because the Mg(2+) required for catalysis are already bound at the enzyme, one of them at Tyr94. We suggest that this Mg(2+) is shifted to the active center during binding of a specific DNA substrate. These results, for the first time, shed light on the pathway by which metal ions as essential cofactors enter the catalytic center of restriction endonucleases.
Department of Biology, IMBB/FORTH, University of Crete, PO Box 1527, Heraklion, GR-71110, Crete, Greece.