Role of amino acid residues at turns in the conformational stability and folding of human lysozyme.Takano, K., Yamagata, Y., Yutani, K.
(2000) Biochemistry 39: 8655-8665
- PubMed: 10913274
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
- Contribution of Intra-and Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonds to the Conformational Stability of Human Lysozyme
Takano, K.,Yamagata, Y.,Funahashi, J.,Hioki, Y.,Kuramitsu, S.,Yutani, K.
(1999) Biochemistry 38: 12698
To clarify the role of amino acid residues at turns in the conformational stability and folding of a globular protein, six mutant human lysozymes deleted or substituted at turn structures were investigated by calorimetry, GuHCl denaturation experimen ...
To clarify the role of amino acid residues at turns in the conformational stability and folding of a globular protein, six mutant human lysozymes deleted or substituted at turn structures were investigated by calorimetry, GuHCl denaturation experiments, and X-ray crystal analysis. The thermodynamic properties of the mutant and wild-type human lysozymes were compared and discussed on the basis of their three-dimensional structures. For the deletion mutants, Delta47-48 and Delta101, the deleted residues are in turns on the surface and are absent in human alpha-lactalbumin, which is homologous to human lysozyme in amino acid sequence and tertiary structure. The stability of both mutants would be expected to increase due to a decrease in conformational entropy in the denatured state; however, both proteins were destabilized. The destabilizations were mainly caused by the disappearance of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Each part deleted was recovered by the turn region like the alpha-lactalbumin structure, but there were differences in the main-chain conformation of the turn between each deletion mutant and alpha-lactalbumin even if the loop length was the same. For the point mutants, R50G, Q58G, H78G, and G37Q, the main-chain conformations of these substitution residues located in turns adopt a left-handed helical region in the wild-type structure. It is thought that the left-handed non-Gly residue has unfavorable conformational energy compared to the left-handed Gly residue. Q58G was stabilized, but the others had little effect on the stability. The structural analysis revealed that the turns could rearrange the main-chain conformation to accommodate the left-handed non-Gly residues. The present results indicate that turn structures are able to change their main-chain conformations, depending upon the side-chain features of amino acid residues on the turns. Furthermore, stopped-flow GuHCl denaturation experiments on the six mutants were performed. The effects of mutations on unfolding-refolding kinetics were significantly different among the mutant proteins. The deletion/substitutions in turns located in the alpha-domain of human lysozyme affected the refolding rate, indicating the contribution of turn structures to the folding of a globular protein.
Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Yamadaoka, Suita, Japan.