Cyclin-dependent kinase 2

UniProtKB accession:  P24941
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Go to UniProtKB:  P24941
UniProtKB description:  Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in the control of the cell cycle; essential for meiosis, but dispensable for mitosis (PubMed:10499802, PubMed:10884347, PubMed:10995386, PubMed:10995387, PubMed:11051553, PubMed:11113184, PubMed:12944431, PubMed:15800615, PubMed:17495531, PubMed:19966300, PubMed:20935635, PubMed:21262353, PubMed:21596315, PubMed:28216226, PubMed:28666995). Phosphorylates CABLES1, CTNNB1, CDK2AP2, ERCC6, NBN, USP37, p53/TP53, NPM1, CDK7, RB1, BRCA2, MYC, NPAT, EZH2 (PubMed:10499802, PubMed:10995386, PubMed:10995387, PubMed:11051553, PubMed:11113184, PubMed:12944431, PubMed:15800615, PubMed:19966300, PubMed:20935635, PubMed:21262353, PubMed:21596315, PubMed:28216226). Triggers duplication of centrosomes and DNA (PubMed:11051553). Acts at the G1-S transition to promote the E2F transcriptional program and the initiation of DNA synthesis, and modulates G2 progression; controls the timing of entry into mitosis/meiosis by controlling the subsequent activation of cyclin B/CDK1 by phosphorylation, and coordinates the activation of cyclin B/CDK1 at the centrosome and in the nucleus (PubMed:18372919, PubMed:19238148, PubMed:19561645). Crucial role in orchestrating a fine balance between cellular proliferation, cell death, and DNA repair in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) (PubMed:18372919, PubMed:19238148, PubMed:19561645). Activity of CDK2 is maximal during S phase and G2; activated by interaction with cyclin E during the early stages of DNA synthesis to permit G1-S transition, and subsequently activated by cyclin A2 (cyclin A1 in germ cells) during the late stages of DNA replication to drive the transition from S phase to mitosis, the G2 phase (PubMed:18372919, PubMed:19238148, PubMed:19561645). EZH2 phosphorylation promotes H3K27me3 maintenance and epigenetic gene silencing (PubMed:20935635). Cyclin E/CDK2 prevents oxidative stress-mediated Ras-induced senescence by phosphorylating MYC (PubMed:19966300). Involved in G1-S phase DNA damage checkpoint that prevents cells with damaged DNA from initiating mitosis; regulates homologous recombination-dependent repair by phosphorylating BRCA2, this phosphorylation is low in S phase when recombination is active, but increases as cells progress towards mitosis (PubMed:15800615, PubMed:20195506, PubMed:21319273). In response to DNA damage, double-strand break repair by homologous recombination a reduction of CDK2-mediated BRCA2 phosphorylation (PubMed:15800615). Involoved in regulation of telomere repar by mediating phosphorylation of NBN (PubMed:28216226). Phosphorylation of RB1 disturbs its interaction with E2F1 (PubMed:10499802). NPM1 phosphorylation by cyclin E/CDK2 promotes its dissociates from unduplicated centrosomes, thus initiating centrosome duplication (PubMed:11051553). Cyclin E/CDK2-mediated phosphorylation of NPAT at G1-S transition and until prophase stimulates the NPAT-mediated activation of histone gene transcription during S phase (PubMed:10995386, PubMed:10995387). Required for vitamin D-mediated growth inhibition by being itself inactivated (PubMed:20147522). Involved in the nitric oxide- (NO) mediated signaling in a nitrosylation/activation-dependent manner (PubMed:20079829). USP37 is activated by phosphorylation and thus triggers G1-S transition (PubMed:21596315). CTNNB1 phosphorylation regulates insulin internalization (PubMed:21262353). Phosphorylates FOXP3 and negatively regulates its transcriptional activity and protein stability (By similarity). Phosphorylates ERCC6 which is essential for its chromatin remodeling activity at DNA double-strand breaks (PubMed:29203878).
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