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Toxin A

UniProtKB accession:  P16154
Grouped By:  Matching UniProtKB accession
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Go to UniProtKB:  P16154
UniProtKB description:  Precursor of a cytotoxin that targets and disrupts the colonic epithelium, inducing the host inflammatory and innate immune responses and resulting in diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis (PubMed:20844489). TcdA and TcdB constitute the main toxins that mediate the pathology of C.difficile infection, an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the colon when the normal gut microbiome is disrupted (PubMed:19252482, PubMed:20844489). Compared to TcdB, TcdA is less virulent and less important for inducing the host inflammatory and innate immune responses (PubMed:19252482). This form constitutes the precursor of the toxin: it enters into host cells and mediates autoprocessing to release the active toxin (Glucosyltransferase TcdA) into the host cytosol (By similarity). Targets colonic epithelia by binding to some receptor, and enters host cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis (By similarity). Binding to LDLR, as well as carbohydrates and sulfated glycosaminoglycans on host cell surface contribute to entry into cells (PubMed:1670930, PubMed:31160825, PubMed:16622409). In contrast to TcdB, Frizzled receptors FZD1, FZD2 and FZD7 do not act as host receptors in the colonic epithelium for TcdA (PubMed:27680706). Once entered into host cells, acidification in the endosome promotes the membrane insertion of the translocation region and formation of a pore, leading to translocation of the GT44 and peptidase C80 domains across the endosomal membrane (By similarity). This activates the peptidase C80 domain and autocatalytic processing, releasing the N-terminal part (Glucosyltransferase TcdA), which constitutes the active part of the toxin, in the cytosol (PubMed:17334356, PubMed:19553670, PubMed:27571750).
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