Spike glycoprotein

UniProtKB accession:  P0DTC2
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Go to UniProtKB:  P0DTC2
UniProtKB description:  Attaches the virion to the cell membrane by interacting with host receptor, initiating the infection. The major receptor is host ACE2 (PubMed:32142651, PubMed:32155444, PubMed:33607086). When S2/S2' has been cleaved, binding to the receptor triggers direct fusion at the cell membrane (PubMed:34561887). When S2/S2' has not been cleaved, binding to the receptor results in internalization of the virus by endocytosis leading to fusion of the virion membrane with the host endosomal membrane (PubMed:32075877, PubMed:32221306). Alternatively, may use NRP1/NRP2 (PubMed:33082294, PubMed:33082293) and integrin as entry receptors (PubMed:35150743). The use of NRP1/NRP2 receptors may explain the tropism of the virus in human olfactory epithelial cells, which express these molecules at high levels but ACE2 at low levels (PubMed:33082293). The stalk domain of S contains three hinges, giving the head unexpected orientational freedom (PubMed:32817270).
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