Chaperonin GroEL

UniProtKB accession:  P0A6F5
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Go to UniProtKB:  P0A6F5
UniProtKB description:  Together with its co-chaperonin GroES, plays an essential role in assisting protein folding (PubMed:10532860, PubMed:16751100, PubMed:1676490, PubMed:18418386, PubMed:18987317, PubMed:20603018, PubMed:24816391, PubMed:2573517, PubMed:2897629, PubMed:8104102, PubMed:9285593). The GroEL-GroES system forms a nano-cage that allows encapsulation of the non-native substrate proteins and provides a physical environment optimized to promote and accelerate protein folding, probably by preventing aggregation and by entropically destabilizing folding intermediates (PubMed:16751100, PubMed:18418386, PubMed:18987317, PubMed:20603018, PubMed:24816391). Rapid binding of ATP, followed by slower binding of the non-native substrate protein and GroES to the cis open ring of GroEL initiates productive folding of the non-native protein inside a highly stable GroEL-ATP-GroES complex (PubMed:19915138, PubMed:22445172, PubMed:9285585, PubMed:9285593). Binding of ATP and GroES induces conformational changes that result in the release of the substrate protein into a nano-cage compartment, within the GroEL central cavity, for folding in isolation (PubMed:16684774, PubMed:22445172, PubMed:8861908, PubMed:9285585). To discharge GroES and substrate protein, ATP hydrolysis in the cis ring is required to form a GroEL-ADP-GroES complex with decreased stability (PubMed:9285593). Finally, binding of ATP to the opposite trans ring of GroEL results in disassembly of the cis-ternary complex, which opens the cage and allows release of the folded protein (PubMed:9285585, PubMed:9285593). Proteins released in non-native form may be rapidly rebound by another GroEL complex until all of the initially bound polypeptide reaches native form (PubMed:7867798, PubMed:7915201). Can rescue kinetically trapped intermediates (PubMed:20603018). GroEL shows ATPase activity (PubMed:1676490, PubMed:379350, PubMed:9285593). ATP hydrolysis moves the reaction cycle forward but is not required for substrate folding (PubMed:9285593).
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