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HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain

UniProtKB accession:  P01903
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Go to UniProtKB:  P01903
UniProtKB description:  An alpha chain of antigen-presenting major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecule. In complex with the beta chain HLA-DRB, displays antigenic peptides on professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) for recognition by alpha-beta T cell receptor (TCR) on HLA-DR-restricted CD4-positive T cells. This guides antigen-specific T-helper effector functions, both antibody-mediated immune response and macrophage activation, to ultimately eliminate the infectious agents and transformed cells (PubMed:29884618, PubMed:17334368, PubMed:8145819, PubMed:15322540, PubMed:22327072, PubMed:27591323, PubMed:31495665, PubMed:15265931, PubMed:9075930, PubMed:24190431). Typically presents extracellular peptide antigens of 10 to 30 amino acids that arise from proteolysis of endocytosed antigens in lysosomes (PubMed:8145819). In the tumor microenvironment, presents antigenic peptides that are primarily generated in tumor-resident APCs likely via phagocytosis of apoptotic tumor cells or macropinocytosis of secreted tumor proteins (PubMed:31495665). Presents peptides derived from intracellular proteins that are trapped in autolysosomes after macroautophagy, a mechanism especially relevant for T cell selection in the thymus and central immune tolerance (PubMed:17182262, PubMed:23783831). The selection of the immunodominant epitopes follows two processing modes: 'bind first, cut/trim later' for pathogen-derived antigenic peptides and 'cut first, bind later' for autoantigens/self-peptides (PubMed:25413013). The anchor residue at position 1 of the peptide N-terminus, usually a large hydrophobic residue, is essential for high affinity interaction with MHCII molecules (PubMed:8145819).
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