NMR Structure of Ac-hGal(17-30)NH2, an N-terminally acetylated fragment of the C-terminus of human galanin

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: SOLUTION NMR
  • Conformers Calculated: 1000 
  • Conformers Submitted: 25 
  • Selection Criteria: structures with the lowest energy 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report

This is version 1.1 of the entry. See complete history


The neuropeptide galanin adopts an irregular secondary structure.

Wilkinson, R.E.Kraichely, K.N.Hendy, C.M.Buchanan, L.E.Parnham, S.Giuliano, M.W.

(2022) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 626: 121-128

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2022.08.032
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    8DHZ, 8DJ4

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Human galanin is a 30-residue neuropeptide targeted for development of analgesics, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants. While previous work from our group and others has already produced significant insights into galanin's N-terminal region, no extant structures of galanin in databases include its full-length sequence and the function of its C-terminus remains ambiguous. We report the NMR solution structure of full-length human galanin C-terminal amide, determined from 2D 1 H- 1 H COSY, TOCSY, and ROESY NMR data. Galanin adopts an irregular helical structure across its N-terminus, likely the average of several coiling states. We present the NMR structure of a peptide encompassing the C-terminus of galanin as a stand-alone fragment. The C-terminus of full-length galanin appears to indirectly assist the intramolecular association of hydrophobic sidechains within its N-terminus, remotely rigidifying their position when compared to previously studied N-terminal galanin fragments. By contrast, there is flexibility in the C-terminus of galanin, characterized by two i to i + 2 hydrogen-bonded turns within an otherwise dynamic backbone. The C-terminal portion of the peptide renders it soluble, and plays a hitherto undescribed biophysical role in pre-organizing the galanin receptor binding epitope. We speculate that hydrophilic microdomains of signaling peptides, hormones, and perhaps intrinsically disordered proteins may also function similarly.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, 29424, USA.


Find similar proteins by:  Sequence   |   3D Structure  

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Galanin16Homo sapiensMutation(s): 2 
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P22466 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P22466 
Go to UniProtKB:  P22466
GTEx:  ENSG00000069482 
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP22466
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: SOLUTION NMR
  • Conformers Calculated: 1000 
  • Conformers Submitted: 25 
  • Selection Criteria: structures with the lowest energy 

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report

Entry History & Funding Information

Deposition Data

Funding OrganizationLocationGrant Number
National Institutes of Health/National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIH/NIGMS)United StatesP20GM103499-20

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2022-08-24
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2022-09-07
    Changes: Database references