Atomic model of the EM-based structure of the full-length tyrosine hydroxylase in complex with dopamine (residues 40-497) in which the regulatory domain (residues 40-165) has been included only with the backbone atoms

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 4.00 Å
  • Aggregation State: PARTICLE 
  • Reconstruction Method: SINGLE PARTICLE 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report

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Structural mechanism for tyrosine hydroxylase inhibition by dopamine and reactivation by Ser40 phosphorylation.

Bueno-Carrasco, M.T.Cuellar, J.Flydal, M.I.Santiago, C.Krakenes, T.A.Kleppe, R.Lopez-Blanco, J.R.Marcilla, M.Teigen, K.Alvira, S.Chacon, P.Martinez, A.Valpuesta, J.M.

(2022) Nat Commun 13: 74-74

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27657-y
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    6ZN2, 6ZVP, 6ZZU, 7A2G, 7PIM

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of dopamine (DA) and other catecholamines, and its dysfunction leads to DA deficiency and parkinsonisms. Inhibition by catecholamines and reactivation by S40 phosphorylation are key regulatory mechanisms of TH activity and conformational stability. We used Cryo-EM to determine the structures of full-length human TH without and with DA, and the structure of S40 phosphorylated TH, complemented with biophysical and biochemical characterizations and molecular dynamics simulations. TH presents a tetrameric structure with dimerized regulatory domains that are separated 15 Å from the catalytic domains. Upon DA binding, a 20-residue α-helix in the flexible N-terminal tail of the regulatory domain is fixed in the active site, blocking it, while S40-phosphorylation forces its egress. The structures reveal the molecular basis of the inhibitory and stabilizing effects of DA and its counteraction by S40-phosphorylation, key regulatory mechanisms for homeostasis of DA and TH.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Tyrosine 3-monooxygenaseA [auth D],
B [auth A],
C [auth B],
D [auth C]
458Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: THTYH
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P07101 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P07101 
Go to UniProtKB:  P07101
PHAROS:  P07101
GTEx:  ENSG00000180176 
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP07101
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 4.00 Å
  • Aggregation State: PARTICLE 
  • Reconstruction Method: SINGLE PARTICLE 

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report

Entry History & Funding Information

Deposition Data

Funding OrganizationLocationGrant Number
Research Council of NorwaySpainFRIMEDBIO 261826
Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation, and UniversitiesSpainPID2019-105872GB-I00

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2021-11-17
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2022-02-02
    Changes: Database references