human Alanine:Glyoxylate Aminotransferase major allele (AGT-Ma); with PMP in the active site

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.70 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.325 
  • R-Value Work: 0.260 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.262 

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Cycloserine enantiomers are reversible inhibitors of human alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase: implications for Primary Hyperoxaluria type 1.

Dindo, M.Grottelli, S.Annunziato, G.Giardina, G.Pieroni, M.Pampalone, G.Faccini, A.Cutruzzola, F.Laurino, P.Costantino, G.Cellini, B.

(2019) Biochem J 476: 3751-3768

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1042/BCJ20190507
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    6RV0, 6RV1

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) is responsible for glyoxylate detoxification in human liver and utilizes pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as coenzyme. The deficit of AGT leads to Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I (PH1), a rare disease characterized by calcium oxalate stones deposition in the urinary tract as a consequence of glyoxylate accumulation. Most missense mutations cause AGT misfolding, as in the case of the G41R, which induces aggregation and proteolytic degradation. We have investigated the interaction of wild-type AGT and the pathogenic G41R variant with d-cycloserine (DCS, commercialized as Seromycin), a natural product used as a second-line treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and its synthetic enantiomer l-cycloserine (LCS). In contrast with evidences previously reported on other PLP-enzymes, both ligands are AGT reversible inhibitors showing inhibition constants in the micromolar range. While LCS undergoes half-transamination generating a ketimine intermediate and behaves as a classical competitive inhibitor, DCS displays a time-dependent binding mainly generating an oxime intermediate. Using a mammalian cellular model, we found that DCS, but not LCS, is able to promote the correct folding of the G41R variant, as revealed by its increased specific activity and expression as a soluble protein. This effect also translates into an increased glyoxylate detoxification ability of cells expressing the variant upon treatment with DCS. Overall, our findings establish that DCS could play a role as pharmacological chaperone, thus suggesting a new line of intervention against PH1 based on a drug repositioning approach. To a widest extent, this strategy could be applied to other disease-causing mutations leading to AGT misfolding.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Serine--pyruvate aminotransferase392Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
EC: (PDB Primary Data), (PDB Primary Data)
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P21549 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P21549 
Go to UniProtKB:  P21549
PHAROS:  P21549
GTEx:  ENSG00000172482 
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP21549
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 1 Unique
IDChains Name / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
PMP (Subject of Investigation/LOI)
Query on PMP

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
C8 H13 N2 O5 P
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.70 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.325 
  • R-Value Work: 0.260 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.262 
  • Space Group: P 41 21 2
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 90.306α = 90
b = 90.306β = 90
c = 142.071γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
XDSdata reduction
Aimlessdata scaling
PDB_EXTRACTdata extraction

Structure Validation

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Ligand Structure Quality Assessment 

Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2020-04-08
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2024-01-24
    Changes: Advisory, Data collection, Database references, Refinement description