The cytotoxin MakA from Vibrio cholerae

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 1.90 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.249 
  • R-Value Work: 0.195 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.198 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report

This is version 1.3 of the entry. See complete history


Flagella-mediated secretion of a novelVibrio choleraecytotoxin affecting both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts.

Dongre, M.Singh, B.Aung, K.M.Larsson, P.Miftakhova, R.Persson, K.Askarian, F.Johannessen, M.von Hofsten, J.Persson, J.L.Erhardt, M.Tuck, S.Uhlin, B.E.Wai, S.N.

(2018) Commun Biol 1: 59-59

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-018-0065-z
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Using Caenorhabditis elegans as an infection host model for Vibrio cholerae predator interactions, we discovered a bacterial cytotoxin, MakA, whose function as a virulence factor relies on secretion via the flagellum channel in a proton motive force-dependent manner. The MakA protein is expressed from the polycistronic makDCBA ( m otility- a ssociated ki lling factor) operon. Bacteria expressing makDCBA induced dramatic changes in intestinal morphology leading to a defecation defect, starvation and death in C. elegans . The Mak proteins also promoted V. cholerae colonization of the zebrafish gut causing lethal infection. A structural model of purified MakA at 1.9 Å resolution indicated similarities to members of a superfamily of bacterial toxins with unknown biological roles. Our findings reveal an unrecognized role for V. cholerae flagella in cytotoxin export that may contribute both to environmental spread of the bacteria by promoting survival and proliferation in encounters with predators, and to pathophysiological effects during infections.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Molecular Biology and The Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS), Umeå University, SE-90187, Umeå, Sweden.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Non-hemolytic enterotoxin lytic component L1A [auth X]396Vibrio choleraeMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: 
Find proteins for Q9KL64 (Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 (strain ATCC 39315 / El Tor Inaba N16961))
Explore Q9KL64 
Go to UniProtKB:  Q9KL64
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupQ9KL64
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 1.90 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.249 
  • R-Value Work: 0.195 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.198 
  • Space Group: P 1 21 1
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 64.575α = 90
b = 36.527β = 91.25
c = 73.551γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
XDSdata reduction
Aimlessdata scaling

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report

Entry History & Funding Information

Deposition Data

Funding OrganizationLocationGrant Number
Swedish Research CouncilSweden2013-2392
Swedish Research CouncilSweden2014-3878
Swedish Research CouncilSweden2016-05009
Swedish cancer societySwedenCAN/2014-831

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2018-05-02
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2018-06-20
    Changes: Data collection
  • Version 1.2: 2018-10-10
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Structure summary
  • Version 1.3: 2024-05-08
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Structure summary